What was practice in Spanish colonial Alta California, Los Angeles area for the surname of a child born out of wedlock if the father did not have a surname? No surname for child Josefa, Baptized #124 on May 15, 1828 at the Plaza Church de Los Angeles, to father gentiles (non-Christian Indian) named Chapo/Chado (?) and mother Josefa Dominguez. Does the child take the mother’s surname or does the child at some age declare or assume a surname? Does anyone have information regarding the customs or practices during the Spanish Colonial period of Alta California for children born out of wedlock? Better yet, does anyone know anything about this child, who I suspect is my GGGG grandmother?