Does Lucious show up on the 1860 census? If not, that may indicate he was enslaved. If he does show up on the census in 1860, a good next step would be to try a FN registry (Free Negro Registry) for the county he may have lived in.
Another place to check would be the Freedman Bank records (http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=8755
). The Bank asked names for parents/siblings/former owners, and other great identifying info.