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Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1070565438000
Classification: Query
Edited: 1081647879000
Surnames: Adair, Thomas, Bowles, Cooper, Sizemore, Wallen, Cone, Mordecai, Collins, Grant, Waters, Powhatan, Cherokee, Choctaw, Blevins, Ward, Coody, LeFlore, McAbee, Rogers, Glass, Black, Fox, Blackfox, Holland, Hyde, Locklear
DNA Testing of Southeastern American Indian Families to Confirm Jewish Ethnicity
Paper delivered at Society of Crypto-Judaic Studies, San Antonio, August 8, 2003

Donald Panther-Yates



THE PROJECT I will be speaking about today, which is the first of its kind I am aware of, grew out of the Melungeon Surname DNA Project started by Beth Hirschman, who was inspired – or manic enough at the time –to spring for the funds. I want to begin by thanking both Beth and Bennett Greenspan of Family Tree DNA for their amazing help and support. At one point in the project, when the results were beginning to roll in, I was pleased to see that both Bennett’s son Elliott and Abe Lavender matched mitochondrial DNA results of several of our participants. Beth was able to e-mail Bennett with the message, “Welcome to Melungeon-land!”

The project called for volunteers to take either a female descent or male descent genetic test if they could provide reasonable genealogical proof that they were descended either from an early Indian trader or a Native American woman who married or had children with one. The odds were all against us. In order to qualify, the descent of the trader or his wife could not cross from the male to the female line; it had to be either the “outside” male line, father to son, father to son, or the outside female line, mother-daughter, mother-daughter. We could not, for instance, test the claim of one individual who claimed, very eloquently and convincingly, to be descended from both Pocahontas and her sister-cousin Princess Cleopatra. I received a fair measure of hate mail from professors of Indigenous Studies. One volunteer, a Collins in Kentucky, wrote to me about Torah study in her local band of the Saponi, though she assured me they were all good Christians. I also got an interesting letter from the chief of a Tennessee band of the Cherokee who lamented the fact that the tribe members were going through their fourth round of DNA testing without proving much Indian blood, though they had found so much Jewish genetics among them that one of them decided to adopt the name “Rolling Bagel.”

Some of the test subjects invariably got cold feet and bowed out. I am particularly sorry to have missed the linear descendant of James Adair (author of the first anthropological study of American Indians in 1775), the linear descendant of Abraham Mordecai (founder of the town of Montgomery, Alabama), and the linear descendant of Cherokee Chief John Looney (whose ancestors were the famous Luna family of Portugal, among them “the woman who defied Kings”). On the bright side, though, we did hit paydirt by locating people with the right credentials and level of cooperation for a number of important historical personages. These included Nancy Ward, the Beloved Woman of the Cherokee Nation, who has more than 12,000 known descendants alive today; Col. William Holland Thomas, the Welsh trader who founded the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina; Chief John Bowles, the leader of the Texas Band of Cherokees; and Elizabeth Tassell, said to be the first Cherokee to marry a white man, Ludovic Grant, a Scottish trader. To these may be added an ancestor both Beth and I have in common – William Cooper, an explorer and trader who was the scout for Daniel Boone.

What I’m going to do is I am going to run through the numbers first, then talk about a few of the genetic types on both the female (mostly Indian) side and white (mostly male) side, then sum up with some observations about the early mixing of Indians and Jews in the Colonial period as a sort of Eastern parallel to the experiences you are probably more familiar with in the American Southwest. I’ve brought all my files with my on a laptop if anyone is interested in seeing specific data or is curious in pursuing a connection after the lecture.

First, the numbers. There were 9 persons, mostly females, who took the Native Match test, and 12 persons, necessarily males, who took the Y-chromosome test. Only one test result came back Unknown, but many of the haplotypes were unique, meaning they matched no sample in either Bennett’s clientele at Family Tree DNA or the larger databases he cross-indexes to, including Michael Hammer’s. This shouldn’t surprise us because the DNA testing of Native Americans has been very restricted, controversial, and concentrated at any event on Navajos and other Western reservation tribes. Peter Jones of the Bäuu Institute in Boulder, Colorado, published an important paper criticizing the whole state of anthropological genetics and calling for an entirely new beginning. Of the five lineages the current state of scholarship admits as Native American -- haplogroups A, B, C, D, and X -- our project found 2 Cs and one B, no A, no D, but one X in an uncle of one of our participants. The majority of those hoping to authenticate their female Indian ancestry (5 out of 9) proved to be H, the most common European haplogroup. One was J, the classic Jewish/Semitic haplogroup. As for the y-chromosomes, half (6 out of 12) were R1b, sometimes called the Atlantic Modal Haplogroup, 2 (17%) were E3b, one of the two well-studied Jewish haplogroups, and one was J2, the other. There were also single entries in the categories of Viking (Locklear, a Lumbee Indian name), Native American (Sizemore), and as I mentioned, one sample that turned out to be a “big unknown.”

So those are the results we are dealing with, and both Beth and I (but I’m not sure about Bennett) were impressed with the fact that, though this was but a small, purposive sample, it produced the same proportion of what we might call male “Jewish” DNA, roughly 20 percent, vis à vis 80 percent male non-Jewish DNA (Atlantic modal haplogroup) as is found in most studies of both Sephardic and Ashkenazi populations. On the female side, the most startling result was a strong hint that there were females carrying Mideastern genes among the Cherokees even before so-called “white contact” in the eighteenth century.

For our first break-out, let’s talk about the results for a woman whom I shall call – unoriginally – Judith, for she showed the J haplogroup in the female line. Judith was very forthcoming with documentation, names, dates, and a lot of family history that would probably have remained hidden to most academic researchers. She claimed strict matrilineal descent from Betsy Walker Hyde, a native girl who was born about 1718, captured in a military operation by the English, and raised by Sen. Felix Walker. Her descendant, Catherine Hyde, was remembered as a “full blood Cherokee,” was selected by Col. Will Thomas, and she and bore him several children. Jasmine put me in touch with the last, lone descendant of one of Col. Will’s other daughters, also by a “Native” woman, Demarius Angeline Thomas Sherril. The mtDNA there was haplogroup X, a rare Native American lineage which may have come from Europe. There are many reasons to think Col. Thomas himself was a crypto-Jew – his mother was a Calvert, and the Holland surname is often associated with Jews from the Netherlands. In support of the crypto-Jewish culture of these people were the given names Demarius (Tamar), Darthelia, Joshua, Parmelia and (my favorite) Docie Beatrice.
Let us go now to the man who turned out to bear Jewish male DNA. I was extremely pleased to get correspondence from the descendants of Col. John Bowles, the founder of the Texas Band of the Cherokee who died at the head of a war party, shot in the back by a white man, near Redlands, Texas, in 1839. We located two elderly brothers in Oklahoma who were great-great-great grandsons of the legendary chief. To everyone’s surprise Bowles DNA came back J2, the haplogroup that contains the Cohen modal lineage, with a two-step mutation matching a person identified as Ashkenazi from the Ukraine. How could this be? Bowles was similar to several other Cherokee chiefs in having been a known “half breed.” His father was a Scots trader and his mother a full-blood Cherokee woman. When his father was killed and robbed by two North Carolinians in 1768, the son was only 12 years old, but within the next two years the fair-complexioned, auburn haired boy had killed both his father’s slayers. After that, he became a Chickamauga warrior. The Bowl (in Cherokee, Duwali) was a white chief at the same time as The Glass (in actuality, Thomas Glass of North Carolina) and Black Fox, my ancestor (a Scotsman descended from Blacks and Foxes), were chiefs of the Cherokee Nation. I believe all their families were Scottish crypto-Jews.

I ran a search for matches on Bowles DNA in the Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database. There were 17 matches in Europe – Albania, Berlin, Budapest, Bulgaria, Bydgoszcz, Cologne, Colombia (2), Freiburg, Latium, Pomerania, Stuttgart, Sweden, Tyrol, Umbria, Warsaw, and Westphaia. A “one-off” mutation produced Freiburg and Lombardy. The picture that emerged was one that closely resembled the distribution pattern for what Beth Hirschman believes were the Gothic invasions that repeopled Italy, France and Spain. The preponderance of matches in our Melungeon surname study has been in the Iberian Peninsula and places like Antioquia, Colombia, where Marranos and crypto-Jews emigrated. Here was a Jewish haplotype that, historically speaking, seems to have traveled out of Scandinavia and the Baltic region with the Lombards, gone through Italy to Spain and Scotland and passed on to the Americas, where it mingled with the Indians.
In another of our surnames, Rogers, one can almost see the footsteps of the Goths.

How about Wales as another unlikely place to find Jews? Our project also established the Jewish roots of another great pioneer family of the South who intermarried with Cherokees, the Blevinses. Two of our test subjects were found to have E3b genes, which even Bennett admits are Ashkenazic. The name Blevins originates in the High Middle Ages and by the 1400s was associated with the little Welsh port town of Formby. It may be the Welsh form of Wolf, or Benjamin. William Blevins, born in Rhode Island, was a Long Hunter from Virginia who explored Kentucky and Tennessee with Elisha Wallen in 1734. His son had two Cherokee wives, sisters, and numerous Blevinses, all of them cousins of mine, appear on the Cherokee rolls. The Blevins family has sometimes been openly Jewish. Bertha Blevins, a declared Jewess, married Moses H. Cone, who was born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, in 1857. She endowed the Greensboro (N.C.) Health Care System upon her death in 1947.

Now it is time to look at the American Indian results. We were fortunate in being able to sample the DNA of two key female figures in Cherokee history. Elizabeth Tassell (we might call her a “princess” as long as the American Indian Movement is not listening), married Ludovic Grant, a Scots trader about 1720 (the name probably comes from French Grand, German Gross), and their descendants are the first and the oldest of the bloodlines studied in a definitive fashion by Emmett Starr, whose genealogies are the basis for government blood quantums and tribal membership even today. One of her eleventh-generation descendants, with a long Dutch name, joined our study and her DNA proved to be haplogroup C – as did also an Oklahoma descendant of Nancy Ward, the famous Beloved Woman. Both participants preserved their clan affiliation, which was Wolf. Does this tell us anything? I think it does, since one’s clan was passed from the mother in a strict fashion, just like mitochondrial DNA. The other test subject, a San Francisco man who matched a woman of Hispanic descent with a crypto-Jewish surname, was of the B lineage and the family still preserved the fact they were Long Hair Clan.

Haplogroup C, notably, has a large “cline” in the southern Appalachians. The B haplogroup, concentrated in the Southwest, appears to correspond to the Pueblo Indians and former Mound Builder tribes, one of whom, the Natchez, were integrated together with the Cherokee as the Long Hair Clan.

Let me mention the “Big Unknown” before concluding. This was an 80-year-old gentleman in California by the Scots-sounding name of McAbee who generously complied with our study, with the help of his niece, and whose family had a sturdy tradition of crypto-Jewish practices in Kentucky, including opening the door for the prophet Elijah on special days in their homes. All the powers at Family Tree DNA drew a blank over his DNA, which was finally classified as “Unknown” and described by all the rest of us as “eerie.” The family claimed they were descended from Judas Macabbaeus. Could it be true? As I learned, it is indeed a very rare haplotype. The closest match in the Y-user database in Berlin were in Albania, Bulgaria/Romani, London and with a Bulgarian Turk. If – and I repeat if – descendants of the Hasmonean Jews, who were the first convert population to Judaism, lived anywhere it would likely be in those places.

The last DNA test results I would like to talk about were those of a verifiably crypto-Jewish family that lived among the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians. This was a male paternal-line descendant of Louis LeFleur/LeFlore, a French Canadian trader who married Rebecca Cravat, said to be an “Indian princess.” He introduced the first cattle, hogs, keel boats, cotton and tobacco crops among the Choctaw, and thus occupies the same position of Culture Bearer as Nancy Ward among the Cherokee. His son Greenwood became a principal chief of the Choctaw, married a Jewish Cherokee woman named Elizabeth Coody and managed to stay in Mississippi after Indian removal. One branch of the family changed its name to Flores. Perhaps I should say, they changed it back to Flores, which is a big Marrano surname. A run through the Y-STR database confirmed numerous Iberian and Latin American matches, with Asturias and Central East Spain being the highest scores.

One of the really “cool” things about DNA analysis is finding a match and making contact with people you would never have dreamed you are related to. When we got the results for Gayle Wilson, an enrolled Cherokee in Oklahoma, and found out she carried the Nancy Ward gene, a young schoolteacher in California by the name of Juan Madrid wrote to us inquiring how he could have matched her. Madrid, of course, is a fairly common Marrano name. But he had no tradition of being Cherokee. His grandmother lived among the Comanches, and all the family would talk about is “some Indian blood somewhere,” without being specific. Juan definitely had the Cherokee Wolf Clan gene, and he is now pursuing tribal enrollment. I found out he already had an Indian name. Very significantly, he is called Two Hearts.

It is time to draw some conclusions and end. Bennett has repeatedly assured both Beth and me that there is no such thing as “Jewish DNA.” Strictly speaking, it’s true. There are haplogroup determinations that contain the DNA of people known to be Jewish today. But even some Arabs and Muslims test positive for the Cohen gene. So how can we be so sure the y-chromosomal haplotypes we are studying are Jewish? The answer lies in the overwhelming preponderance of surnames with Hebrew and Sephardic Jewish roots, combined with multigenerational cousin marriage and other historical factors that must be properly interpreted. Genetics without a good genealogical chart is useless, and even the charts are deceptive in the case of crypto-Jewish families unless one has access to the death-bed confessions and whispered family traditions.

Only in the last two years have I found out my family on both my mother and father’s side was Jewish, specifically crypto-Jewish with numerous ties to the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw and other southeastern Indian tribes. There is not a single surname in my family tree, which I have traced back more than 700 years in some lines, that breaks the pattern. Despite all this, though, I always wanted to find something concrete and unequivocal, something of the vanished past I could touch with my hands and cling to in my heart. So this spring I made a pilgrimage to New Hope Cemetery on Sand Mountain in Tennessee where my great-great-great grandmother Mahala Jane Blevins Cooper is said to be buried.

New Hope is a beautiful, forgotten place. The dogwoods and redbuds were in flower; it was a Sunday morning. The Cooper-Blevins burial plot was on the edge of the cemetery, with the oldest stones, rough unmarked header and footer rocks, unlike the rest of the graves. I took a picture of my great-uncle Harmon Cooper’s memorial. It had the Freemason or Templar cross and showed a hand pointing to the sky, with the words GONE HOME—I’d seen similar designs in the crypto-Jewish burials at Purrysburgh, S.C. I dressed the graves … put down a tobacco offering in the Indian manner … said the Shema and Shecheyanu … wished I had learned the Mourner’s Kaddish, and finally experienced what I think I had been looking for all along … a shock of recognition maybe, the strong feeling that the ancestors were, or would have been, pleased. If I have accomplished nothing else, I would like to leave you with this. We all have a moral imperative to uncover our families’ past. And they would have been proud of us.




PHOTOGRAPHS


General view of New Hope Cemetery, Marion County, Tennessee, with Blevins-Cooper burial plot.


Gravesite of Harmon Cooper (1830-1879)
Attachments:

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1070811704000
Classification: Query
"The Blevins family has sometimes been openly Jewish. Bertha Blevins, a declared Jewess, married Moses H. Cone, who was born in Jonesboro, Tennessee, in 1857. She endowed the Greensboro (N.C.) Health Care System upon her death in 1947."


There appears to be a conflict in the internet genealogies of Moses H. Cone and wife.


Name: Bertha LINDAU
Given Name: Bertha
Surname: Lindau
Sex: F
Birth: 4/1/1858
Death: 6/8/1947
Note: Bertha Lindau Cone establishes the "Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital" in Greensboro, North Carolina on her death, June 8, 1947.

Marriage 1 Moses H. CONE b: 6/29/1857 in Jonesboro TN

=============

Name: Max LINDAU
Sex: M
Birth: OCT 1829 in Wuertemberg, Germany
Occupation: Liquor Dealer
Residence: BET 1880 AND 1900 Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Residence: 1900 owned; Linden Ave., Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Immigration: 1852

Marriage 1 Henrietta UNKNOWN b: JUL 1841 in Laupheim, Germany
Children
Albert M. LINDAU b: 1869 in Maryland, USA
Bertha LINDAU b: 1858 in USA <---------------------------------------
Sophia LINDAU b: DEC 1859 in Maryland, USA
Jacob LINDAU b: DEC 1860 in Indiana
Julius LINDAU b: 1866
Clemintina LINDAU b: JUN 1871 in Maryland, USA
Solomon J LINDAU b: 1872 in Maryland, USA

http://awt.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=2209&a...

Bertha is listed with Max Lindau in 1880 Census as a daughter

=====
Moses H. Cone from History of Western North Carolina by Jeffrey Weaver

He died childless and intestate; but his widow, Mrs. Bertha Lindau Cone, and his brothers, and sisters, Ceasar Cone and wife, Jeannette Cone, L. N. Cone, Julius W. Cone, Bernard M. Cone and wife of Guilford county; Frederick W. Cone, Moses D. Long and his wife, Carrie Cone Long, of Buncombe; Sydney M. Cone and wife, and C. and E. Cone of Baltimore, Md., in May, 1911, in recognition of "the deep love and lasting affection" for the people of Watauga of Moses H. Cone, conveyed to the Cone Memorial Hospital, a corporation of Guilford county, the whole of the Flat Top Manor and three smaller tracts which had been acquired by Mrs. Cone since her husband's death-the entire propety, aggregating 3,517 acres-to be called the "Moses H. Cone Memorial Park,"
http://www.ls.net/~newriver/nc/wnc21.htm
==========
About Moses Cone Health System


From its beginnings in 1911 as a trust established by Bertha Lindau Cone, the Moses Cone Health System has grown into one of the premier health-care institutions in North Carolina
http://www.mosescone.com/bodypat.cfm?id=408

I couldn't find her listed as a Blevins, where did you find this?

Thanks,
Joanne

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1070823112000
Classification: Query
Edited: 1081647879000
Hi, I believe my source was Elizabeth Hirschman. I am clearly wrong about Bertha. Maybe it was Sternberger. Or it was a first wife. Why don't you ask Beth.
Donald Panther-Yates

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1070824758000
Classification: Query
Edited: 1081647879000
Surnames: Blevins
Or the source may have been Felicia Noelle Trujillo. Felicia is a Blevins descendant and has a fascinating Melungeon page at http://www.backrescue.com/Melungeon.html She has also written articles about her Jewish background.
Donald Panther-Yates

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Crystal (View posts)
Posted: 1071029082000
Classification: Query
Interesting article. a couple of questions. How is the person who was a match to an enrolled cherokee persuing enrollment? I thought that one needed conclusive (paper) proof to a dawes roll member. Are they going to be accepting the dna evidence?

Second question - so what are your plans now? Are you going to continue to do further studies?

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1071074250000
Classification: Query
Edited: 1081647879000
Hi, The person matching Nancy Ward's DNA (a schoolteacher in California) had been raised as a sort of orphan and only knew that he "had some sort of Indian." When he matched an enrolled Cherokee and descendant of Dragging Canoe he contacted the CNO, EBCI and a state-recognized tribe. I am sorry to report the rebuff he received from all three. After 200 hundred years of requiring affidavits and scientific proof from Indians to prove they are Indians, the government-administered Indian tribes and bands of today cannot deal with DNA proof. Chief Blevins of the Whitetop Band of Sizemore Indians was right on the money: Every Sizemore from a DNA line that has tested Q should be recognized as a descendant of the original indigenous people of this country (Fed. definition of American Indian). It's as plain as the nose on the face of a bureaucrat sitting in Washington with his feet propped on the desk. I wish the Sizemores would reorganize.
You ask what next... Elizabeth Hirschman and I have written a 380 page study of the origins of Scotland, its clans and its mercantilism, connecting many famous names in her history to the Davidic state in France ca. 750 and settlement of Jews in GGlasgow, Perthshire and Aberdeen during the various expulsions and pograms in Europe. The manuscript has been accepted by a major publisher of Judaica and will be introduced by Rabbi Arnold Mark Belzer, an expert on Chinese Jews. After that we plan to look at the Sephardic contribution to the Plymouth Colony, Jamestown, Charleston and western movement in America. Whether with Beth or not, I also want to write a study of Judaism among Southeastern Indians.

In July there will be a workshop at the Fourth International Conference on Diversity in Los Angeles. Hirschman will deliver a paper on "The Origins of Scotland," and I will deliver one on "DNA and Population Studies." We are looking for additional contributions for the workshop that will address Ethnicity, Genetics, Judaica or Native American studies. An abstract of the workshop follows:

DNA, Ethnicity, Genetics and Genealogy: Mapping History and Culture with Haplogroup Studies and Surname Research
Donald Neal Panther-Yates, Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman.



DNA analysis of over 150 prominent surnames in the Melungeon DNA Project reveals a Jewish and Moorish settlement pattern in Glasgow, Perthshire and Aberdeen from the Norman period onward. Some Scottish clans appear to have had ethnically Jewish founders. Crypto-Jewish practices are documented in many of Scotland's guilds, merchant societies, burial grounds and Templar activities. Sephardic Jews, Moors, Muslims and Marranos from the Continent found a welcome in Scottish society during the English, French and Spanish persecution of Jews beginning in the 13th century. These same families were influential in shaping Presbyterianism, establishing the Ulster Scots plantations in Ireland, and developing international trade. After immigration to America, they dominated the westward movement on the frontier, including the assimilation of American Indian tribes, land development, and introduction of manufacturing, from Tennessee to Texas.
Best regards,
Donald Panther-Yates

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1071087292000
Classification: Query
Donald wrote;

"DNA analysis of over 150 prominent surnames in the Melungeon DNA Project reveals a Jewish and Moorish settlement pattern in Glasgow, Perthshire and Aberdeen from the Norman period onward"

Perhaps we can start this debate off by you giving us your definiton of a Melungeon.

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1071097965000
Classification: Query
Edited: 1081647879000
Surnames: Cooper, Yates, Sizemore, Goins, Blevins, Mullins, Minor, Cherokee, Choctaw
Dear Ms. P.,
Ah, well, here we go again. You are probably not going to like "my" definition since it is not self-referential, or anecdotal, or prescriptive, but purely descriptive, based on the usage and evolution of the word in public history sources. Let me say at the outset that I am not a Melungeon, though most of my family lines have been called that, and carry most of the medical conditions associated with Melungeon health, and have been discriminated against in most of the ways discussed on the Melungeon-L list, and even were named in Warren Pleckner's hideous campaign against people of color in the 30s and 40s. To this day my mother, a Cooper who was born in Jackson County, Alabama, and is 88 years old, does not have a birth certificate because her father refused to "register" her. He also refused to get a Social Security Number. I do not identify with the Melungeon Movement personally. I sympathize with it and wish it well, but I am not one to register. I am also a member of no recognized American Indian tribe, though I am descended from Choctaw and Cherokee chiefs who signed treaties with the U.S. government that were spread upon the laws of the land "as long as the grass grows and the rivers run," and I identify with that race primarily.

To talk about what I am, I am a trained philologist, archivist and historian. Using the disciplines I know, I have drafted the following footnote that will appear in the book I am co-authoring with Elizabeth Hirschman. It explains some of the true, some of the twisted, and some of the false meanings that have been given to the term Melungeon.

Melungeons are sometimes also referred to as Black Dutch. On the beginnings of the use of this term in U.S. history to refer to Hollanders of dark appearance (without any mention of Melungeons or Jews), see Mary Bondurant Warren, editor, Family Puzzlers, July 22, 1976, No. 457; reprinted in USGenNet http://www.tngenweb.org/cherokee_by_blood/dutch.htm. (Warren is a reputable source, as she served as Historian of the state of Georgia.) The same people were often called Portuguese in colonial Virginia and Carolina records (Gallegos 1997). A connection between the two terms lies in the Sephardic Jewish merchants who settled in the Dutch Republic following its independence from Spain, who called themselves, ambiguously, gente del linaje, or homens da nação, or “Hebrews of the Portuguese Nation” (on which, Bodian 1997, without any knowledge of Melungeons), and who streamed into Britain, and thence to America, beginning with the mission of Amsterdam chief rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel to readmit Jews under Cromwell (Wall 1987). The first known use of the word Melungeon in U.S. records (“Melungin”) occurs in the minutes of the Primitive Baptist Church of Stony Creek, Tennessee, in 1813 (Goins 2000, p. 9), where it is applied to certain “irregular” members with the surnames Minor, Gibson, and Collins who fraternized with the Sizemores (Cismar), a mixed Portuguese Jewish and American Indian family, on Blackwater Creek (see Horton n.d.; Appendix A for Sizemore DNA). Mere knowledge of such a rare term, thought to be Arabic (“cursed souls”), must have come from the Collins, Goins, Sizemores and others, who moved in a Caribbean and Spanish-Portuguese orbit. These and other families who clustered on Newmans Ridge were many years later labeled as Melungeon by a Nashville journalist named Drumgoole (1890), and the term has stuck. She was a descendant of a Scots trader among the Cherokee, Alexander Drumgoole (d. 1837), whose mixed-blood daughter Nannie the Pain married Cherokee chief Doublehead (d. Aug. 9, 1807). Drumgoole is credited with popularizing many elements of the legend, at a time when New York travel writers were inventing “hillbillies” (Benjamin Albert Botkin, A Treasury of Southern Folklore [New York: Crown Publishers, 1949], pp. 85-86). The term Melungeon also is used in Brazilian history of settlements by Portuguese Jews and Moorish adventurers among the Amerindians of the Wild Coast. Strictly speaking, then, it does not “belong” exclusively to people of Newmans Ridge and surrounding area.

I believe, then, that Melungeon is a very problematical term per se. If a term is needed to refer to mixed descent early inhabitants of the lower Appalachians, it would probably be better to use something like "people of color." No term is needed for Jews in that population except Jewish, because they did not usually consider themselves "mixed," even if known Indian or black occurred in the family, but rather just the opposite, pure -- that's why they married each other. Remember, too, that Jewish is a religious designation, not racial. The irony is that bigots regard Jews as mixed and "mongrel" -- I keep hearing that word in particular, as though Jews were dogs, not human beings. BTW, not only am I not registered, but I don't even have "papers" :)
Best regards,
Donald Panther-Yates

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Posted: 1071112107000
Classification: Query
Dear Ms. P.,
Ah, well, here we go again. You are probably not going to like "my" definition since it is not self-referential, or anecdotal, or prescriptive, but purely descriptive, based on the usage and evolution of the word in public history sources. Let me say at the outset that I am not a Melungeon, though most of my family lines have been called that, and carry most of the medical conditions associated with Melungeon health,

>>>>>There are no medical conditions associated with Melungeon people. There are diseases that may be associated with some people of Appalachia. If you google Melungeon+disease you will get approximately 763 hits of which 761 go back to one person, NancyS., and the other two to Brent Kennedy in which he says there are no Melungeon diseases, he says, "First, "Melungeon" is a term whose origin is still debatable. No one knows with certainty where and how the term arose, and perhaps we never will. "Melungeon" is a culture and cultures do not have diseases - people do. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

"....and have been discriminated against in most of the ways discussed on the Melungeon-L list, and even were named in Warren Pleckner's hideous campaign against people of color in the 30s and 40s."

>>>>>>>>>>."Walter Plecker's" campaign was against the Native Americans as well as people of color and in particular the MELUNGEONS of Hancock County, Tennesee.

Quote:
"August 5, 1942
Secretary of State,
Nashville, Tennessee

Dear Sir:

Our bureau is the only one in any State making an intensive study of the population of its citizens by race.

We have in some of the counties of southwestern Virginia a number of so-called Melungeons who came into that section from Newmans Ridge, Hancock County, Tennessee, and who are classified by us as of negro origin though they make various claims, such as Portugese, Indians, etc.

The law of Virginia says that any one with any ascertainable degree of negro is to be classified as colored and we are endeavoring to so classify those who apply for birth, death and marriage registrations.

We have a list of the free negroes, by counties, of the 1830 U. S. Census in which we find the racial origin of most of these Melungeons classified as mulattoes. In that period, 1830, we do not find the name of Hancock County, but presume that it was made up from portions of other counties, possible Grainger and Hawkins, where we find considerable numbers of these Melungeon families listed.

Will you please advise as to that point and particularly which of these original counties Newmans Ridge was in.

Thanking you in advance and with kindest regards, I am

Very truly yours,

W. A. Plecker, M. D.
State Registrar.

This intensive study done by Walter Plecker and his researchers turned up " so called Melungeons" in southwestern Virginia FROM Newman's Ridge.<<<<<<<<<



"To talk about what I am, I am a trained philologist, archivist and historian. Using the disciplines I know, I have drafted the following footnote that will appear in the book I am co-authoring with Elizabeth Hirschman. It explains some of the true, some of the twisted, and some of the false meanings that have been given to the term Melungeon".

>>>>>I am merely a "self taught family genealogist" but we are even on that count unless they are giving out PHDs in Genealogy. I have spent 15 years studying the Gibson, Collins and other surnames of the documented Melungeons. I have read their wills, studied their deeds, census records, read the histories of the counties they lived in, and traced them over the ocean.<<<<<<<<<<<<<

"Melungeons are sometimes also referred to as Black Dutch. On the beginnings of the use of this term in U.S. history to refer to Hollanders of dark appearance (without any mention of Melungeons or Jews), see Mary Bondurant Warren, editor, Family Puzzlers, July 22, 1976, No. 457; reprinted in USGenNet http://www.tngenweb.org/cherokee_by_blood/dutch.htm. (Warren is a reputable source, as she served as Historian of the state of Georgia.) "

You are correct. She does not use the word Melungeon. She goes on to say,

"This explanation seems to have come down in several of your families who claim "Black Dutch" descent. Another reported that the WILHITES who were imported to VA by Gov. SPOTTSWOOD as part of the Germana Colony of Iron workers were "Black Dutch." They came from Alsace-Lorraine an area of contention between France and Germany. They had black hair, "china blue to purplish blue eyes", fair skin, and tall. "The Black Forest" was mentioned as their home.No doubt some of the German-speaking immigrants to the colonies WERE descendants of some of the darker races"

>>>>And again does not use the word Melungeon.With one broad brush stroke are we going to make every descendant of these "darker races" a Melungeon? <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

"The same people were often called Portuguese in colonial Virginia and Carolina records (Gallegos 1997). A connection between the two terms lies in the Sephardic Jewish merchants who settled in the Dutch Republic following its independence from Spain, who called themselves, ambiguously, gente del linaje, or homens da nação, or “Hebrews of the Portuguese Nation” (on which, Bodian 1997, without any knowledge of Melungeons), and who streamed into Britain, and thence to America, beginning with the mission of Amsterdam chief rabbi Menasseh Ben Israel to readmit Jews under Cromwell (Wall 1987). "

>>>>>>>>>>Again, all of the above is very interesting but it has nothing to do with the Melungeons, not the Historical Melungeons or the Self-defined Melungeons.<<


"The first known use of the word Melungeon in U.S. records (“Melungin”) occurs in the minutes of the Primitive Baptist Church of Stony Creek, Tennessee, in 1813 (Goins 2000, p. 9), where it is applied to certain “irregular” members with the surnames Minor, Gibson, and Collins who fraternized with the Sizemores (Cismar), a mixed Portuguese Jewish and American Indian family, on Blackwater Creek (see Horton n.d.; Appendix A for Sizemore DNA)."

>>>>.Just because the Minor, Gibson, Collins, etc., has 'fraternized with' a family it certainly does not mean those families became 'Melungeons." You have your 'hyothetical" [?] Sizemore family tree online and can not prove beyoned 1685, how can you justify simply "creating an ancestry for them?" <<<<<<<<

"Mere knowledge of such a rare term, thought to be Arabic (“cursed souls”), must have come from the Collins, Goins, Sizemores and others, who moved in a Caribbean and Spanish-Portuguese orbit".

>>>>Malengine is not a "rare term" ~~


Dictionnaire de L'Académie française, Cinquième édition, 1798

MALENGIN. S. Mr. Vieux word which means Tromperie. It did that by fraud, easy way and malengin

trumpery - 1456, "deceit, trickery," from M.Fr. tromperie, from tromper "to deceive," of uncertain origin. Spelling influenced by trump (v.). Meaning "showy but worthless finery" is first recorded 1610.

http://encyclopedie.inalf.fr/cgi-bin/ACAD1798.pg.sh?POBJECT=...
==================================================
From THE FAIRIE QUEENE Edmund Spencer

Book Five of The Faerie Queene, in the description of the villain Malengin in canto nine:

Thereto both his owne wylie wit, (she sayd)
And eke the fastnesse of his dwelling place,
Both vnassaylable, gaue him great ayde:
For he so crafty was to forge and face,
So light of hand, and nymble of his pace,
So smooth of tongue, and subtile in his tale,
That could deceive one looking in his face;
Therefore by name Malengin they him call,
Well knowen by his feates, and famous ouer all.

==================================================
Written from lefte to right in swich a weie
This charme shal kepe the malengin at baie,
Threw lynth of daies and in the depth of nyght
Hit will a-knowe the malefice heth myght.

Alexander Curtis
Travelling Englishman
==================================================
Confessio Amantis
or Tales of the Seven Deadly Sins

JOHN GOWER (1330-1408 A.D.), ed. Prof. G.C. Macauley (Oxford, 1901).



Which nou is closed overal; 340
Tho was ther no brocage in londe,
Which nou takth every cause on honde:
So mai men knowe, hou the florin
Was moder ferst of malengin
And bringere inne of alle werre,
Wherof this world stant out of herre
Thurgh the conseil of Avarice,
Which of his oghne propre vice

"
Gower was Chaucer's friend and fellow poet. He wrote his early works in Latin (Vox Clamantis ) and French (Mirour de l'omme, Cinquante balades ) and turned to English, he says (in the Prologue to the Confessio Amantis ) at the command of Richard II, who was worried that there were so few books in that language. Like Chaucer, Gower gained an international reputation; in the early fifteenth century his Confessio Amantis was translated into Portuguese prose (by an Englishman, Robert Payn) and then into Spanish by Juan de Cuenca.



http://www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/~chaucer/special/authors/...


==================================================

MALENGIN: a favourite word of Sir Thomas Malory: "mischievous intent."

"http://authorsdirectory.com/c/aucnc10.htm"
==================================================
"http://www.bartleby.com/81/10864.html"
Malengin [guile].

On his back he carried a net “to catch fools.” Being attacked by Sir Artegal and his iron man, he turned himself first into a fox, then to a bush, then to a bird, then to a hedgehog, then to a snake; but Talus was a match for all his deceits, and killed him. (Spenser: Faërie Queene, v. 9

"Second Union of Brussels
December 12, 1577
For cest effect we swearwords and let us promectons the ungs different garlics, prennant the sovereign God for tesmoing, to hold the hand, to observe and to remark what dict is, in all fidelity and sincere honesty without frauldre or malengin and to maintain, guarantee and defend according to all nostre possibility the ungs the aultres in ceste just and saincte quarrel, promectans and jurans"

"Union of Arras
January 6, 1579
let us have submis and obliged, submettons and oblige one towards the other of it noz corps.et.biens and ceulx of noz hoirs, successors and remanans, pieces of furniture and buildings, présens and to occur by all, renonçans generally and espécialement with all exceptions of droict, loy and coustume, and all aultres which on the contrary pourroient to us to be useful and be worth: the whole of good foy and without any malengin." <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<


These and other families who clustered on Newmans Ridge were many years later labeled as Melungeon by a Nashville journalist named Drumgoole (1890), and the term has stuck. She was a descendant of a Scots trader among the Cherokee, Alexander Drumgoole (d. 1837), whose mixed-blood daughter Nannie the Pain married Cherokee chief Doublehead (d. Aug. 9, 1807).Drumgoole is credited with popularizing many elements of the legend, at a time when New York travel writers were inventing “hillbillies”

>>>>>Will Allen Dromgoole was daughter of John Easter Dromgoole and Rebecca Mildred Blanch and was a descendant of Thomas Dromgoole of Sligo, Ireland to Brunswick Co., Virginia. If Alexander Drumgoole was in any way related to this family I have not found it. Do you have a source? Her brother, George Dromgoole, was married to the daughter of Malcolm GIBSON of Lawrence County, Alabama. Perhaps this was how she was able to travel to Newman's Ridge, alone, in 1890, and perhaps she already knew the Melungeon history and didn't have to 'invent' anything.<<<<<




"I believe, then, that Melungeon is a very problematical term per se. If a term is needed to refer to mixed descent early inhabitants of the lower Appalachians, it would probably be better to use something like "people of color."


>>>>>You can believe what you want. Beliefs do not write history. Opinions do not write history. ......









Joanne Pezzullo
"self-taught family genealogist"

Historical Melungeons
http://www.geocities.com/ourmelungeons/front.html

Re: Jewish DNA among Southeastern Indians

Helen Campbell (View posts)
Posted: 1071123311000
Classification: Query
Joanne,

I'm not accepting your Newmans Ridge theory. I have blocked all your email addresses because you constantly snap a sharp reply on everything I write anywhere on the Internet.

Joanne, you are wrong, the Melungeons desendants are everywhere in America and estimated to be about 200,000. If you disagree that does NOT make everyone else in the world wrong, only in your own small world because you know it all. Too bad we all were not blessed with your IQ and ability to know everything.

Don Yates statement is at:

http://www.geocities.com/melungeon_movement/index.html

Thank you all for listening to my version of the truth,

Helen

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