At this point most of this is guess work. Samuel and Polly Caldwell came from Rockbridge County Virginia. I went to the census record from Rockbridge in 1810. There are 3 families of Oylers living side by side. Jacob is the old man. Next to him are Henry and Frederick. I assume they are sons. Jacob has a son living at home who falls in the age range of Samuel.
I also checked for any Caldwell families. There was only one in the whole county. Head of household was James Caldwell and he had a daughter in the age range of Polly.
Samuel and Polly were married in Rockbridge County on 24 Dec 1811. So in theory this all fits together. I am still working on records to verify all of this. Records show that Samuel was born in PA. I picked up one comment that said that the family was only in Rockbridge for 3 years prior to Samuel moving to Ohio.
Another mystery!! I have found a census record for an Andrew Oiler born between 1780 and 1790. This falls into the same age range as Samuel and his "brothers" this Andrew had 1 son U5, 3 girls U5, and 1 girl 5-10. This is in the 1830 census record for Perry Twsp Gallia County. I wonder if this could be another brother of Samuel. I can find no records on this Andrew before or after 1830.
Henry stayed in Rockbridge. I have census records for 1810. 20, and 30.
Frederick also stayed in Rockbridge. I have the same census records on him.
I can not find Jacob after the 1810 census but he was an old goat in 1810 and may have died before 1820.