Ny = new
kirke = church
It translates to New Church.
Ny is often a prefix. Nygaard = New Farm.
By is one old word used as a suffix that did not change and it's found in many words in the Scandinavian countries, England, Ireland where the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings settled and locations in America where Scandinavians settled. By still means 'town.' Crosby = Cross Town, for instance.
When one grows up in a Scandinavian community one hears these words or parts of words or compound words all the time and gets used to the names. It's only when one starts doing genealogy research that one must think about the meaning/definition of the words. Many words are translatable just by knowing the definition of a few words.
Vik - Vig - Wik - Wig - Viik/Wiig, are a few of the alternate spellings. Vik is an inlet or bay. It's the root word for Viking, but with four interchangeable letters there are multiple ways of spelling the same word.
Ness/Nes and other alternate spellings - peninsula. Lots of places in Norway are peninsulas, so it's often a prefix or suffix.
Havn/Hamn = harbor.
See? Just a few words... you have a whole bunch of definitions and language comes alive when you see how they can be mixed and matched to form new words.
Otto's dictionary is a treasure trove. He has old Dano-Norsk spellings, points to modern correct spelling, and gives a definition. Mark the link in your Favorites Bar next to the Digitalarkivet link:http://home.online.no/~otjoerge/files/word.htm