Hi, According to this book, their was also some Cherokee mixed in with the tribe.
I read a copy of the book online at; http://www.webroots.org/library/usanativ/cioscnc0.html
It's a very small book, so I've pasted it here for you....
The Croatan Indians of Sampson County, North Carolina; Their Origin and Racial Status; A Plea for Separate Schools, by George Edwin Butler
Published: Durham, N.C., Seeman Printery, 1916
Note: Has some genealogies
THE CROATAN NORMAL SCHOOL AT PEMBROKE, N. C. The first Croatan Indian School established and supported by the State
The Croatan Indians
of Sampson County, North Carolina
Their Origin and Racial Status
A Plea for Separate Schools
By GEO. E. BUTLER
CLINTON, NORTH CAROLINA
THE SEEMAN PRINTERY
DURHAM, N. C.
A Petition of the Indians of Sampson County . . . 5
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE INDIANS OF SAMPSON AND ADJOINING COUNTIES
Historical . . . 9
The Croatans . . . 10
White's Lost Colony . . . 10
Their Wanderings and Location . . . 17
Political and Educational History . . . 23
First Separate Schools for Croatans . . . 27
Marriage with Negroes Forbidden . . . 28
Separate Schools in Other Counties . . . 28
Separate Schools in Sampson . . . 31
Why the Indian School in Sampson was Repealed . . . 31
Indian Tax Payers in Sampson . . . 32
Easily Recognized as Indians . . . 33
They Were Never Slaves . . . 34
Formerly Eroneously Classed as Negroes . . . 34
Laws of State Recognize Them as Separate Race . . . 35
State Provides Colleges for Whites and Negroes but not for Indians . . 36
Indians Justly Proud of Their History . . . 36
Better Educational Facilities Should be Provided . . . 37
Indian Taxes in Sampson . . . 38
Sampson Exceeds all Other Counties, Except Robeson, in Indian Polls and
Property . . . 39
Family Relationship Between Robeson and Sampson Croatans . . . 40
New Bethel Indian School . . . 42
Shiloh Indian School . . . 44
The Indian Photographs and Pictures . . . 46
SKETCH OF PROMINENT INDIAN FAMILIES OF SAMPSON
The Emanuel Family . . . 47
The Maynor Family . . . 51
The Brewington Family . . . 51
The Jones Family . . . 59
The Simmons Family . . . 61
The Jacobs Family . . . 63
Indian Families of Sampson . . . 63
The Croatan Normal School at Pembroke . . . Frontispiece
New Bethel Indian School . . . 42
Shiloh Indian Sunday School . . . 43
Jonah Manuel and Family . . . 43
Enoch Manuel and Wife . . . 48
William J. Bledsole and Wife . . . 50
Luther Bledsole and Children and Henry Bledsole and Wife . . . 52
Hardy A. Brewington . . . 54
Group of Boys and Girls . . . 56
Lee Locklear, Steve Lowrey, French Locklear . . . 58
Levander Manuel . . . 58
June Brewington . . . 58
C. D. Brewington . . . 59
Jonathan Goodman . . . 60
William Simmons . . . 62
Betsy J. Simmons . . . 62
Enoch Manuel, Jr., and Family . . . 64
Henry Bledsole and Wife . . . 65
Page 4 [blank]
A PETITION OF THE INDIANS OF SAMPSON COUNTY NORTH CAROLINA
STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA--COUNTY OF SAMPSON.
To the Honorable Board of Education of Sampson County, North Carolina:
The undersigned, your petitioners, a part of the Croatan Indians living
in the County of Sampson, State aforesaid, having their residence here for
more than two hundred years, as citizens and tax payers of the County and
State, peacefully sharing all the burdens of our government, and desiring
to share in all the benefits incident thereto, respectfully petition your
Honorable Board for such recognition and aid in the education of their
children as you may see fit to extend to them, the amount appropriated to
be used for the sole and exclusive purpose of assisting your petitioners
to educate their children and fit them for the duties of citizenship.
Your petitioners would show that there are, according to the bulletin of the thirteenth census of 1910, two hundred and thirteen Indians in Sampson County. And, that there are of legal school age, for whom there now no separate school provisions, over one hundred Indian school children. That these children are not permitted to attend, and have no
desire to attend, the white schools, and in no other section of the State are they required to attend the colored schools.
That they are a distinct and separate race of people, and are now endeavoring, as best they can, at their own expense, to build and maintain their own schools, without any appropriation from the county or state, notwithstanding, they cheerfully pay taxes for this purpose, and otherwise
share in the burdens and benefits of the government.
That the Croatan Indians of this county are a quiet, peaceful and industrious people, and have been residents of this section long before the advent of the white man, with whom
they have always been friendly, and with whom they have always courted and maintained most cordial relations.
There is a tradition among them that they are a remnant of White's Lost Colony and during the long years that have passed since the disappearance of said colony, they have been struggling to fit themselves and their children for the exalted privileges and duties of American freemen, and to
substantiate this historical and traditional claim, hereto append, and make a part of this petition such historical data as they have been able to collect to aid you in arriving at their proper racial status.
Your petitioners further respectfully show that they are the same race and blood and a part of the same people, held by the same ties of racial and social intercourse as the Croatan Indians of Robeson County, many of whom were former residents of Sampson County, and with whom they have
married and intermarried. That since the State of North Carolina has been so just and generous as to provide special and separate school advantages for our brothers and kinsmen, in Robeson County, as well as in the
counties of Richmond, Scotland, Hoke, Person and Cumberland, we now appeal to you for the same just and generous recognition from the State of North Carolina and from your Honorable Board, in Sampson County, that we may share equal advantages with them as people of the same race and blood, and as loyal citizens of the State.
And your petitioners will ever pray.
H. A. BREWINGTON,
J. H. BREWINGTON,
J. R. JONES,
R. J. JACOBS,
H. S. BREWINGTON,
J. B. SIMMONS,
WM. SIMMONS, SR.
W. J. BLEDSOLE,
ENOCH MANUEL, JR.
M. L. BREWINGTON,
R. H. JACOBS,
J. W. FAIRCLOTH,
WM. SIMMONS, JR.
E. R. BREWINGTON,
W. L. BLEDSOLE,
ENOCH MANUEL, or EMANUEL,
G. B. BREWINGTON,
W. B. BREWINGTON,
C. O. JACOBS,
J. S. STRICKLAND,
K. J. AMMONS,
C. A. BREWINGTON,
C. D. BREWINGTON,
T. J. JACOBS,
J. M. WEST,
R. M. WILLIAMS,
J. A. BREWINGTON,
W. E. GOODMAN,
B. J. FAIRCLOTH,
J. G. SIMMONS,
J. H. BLEDSOLE,
H. J. JONES,
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE INDIANS OF SAMPSON AND ADJOINING COUNTIES
On June 30th, 1914, the United States Senate passed a resolution directing the Secretary of the Interior to cause an investigation to be made of the condition and tribal rights of the Indians of Robeson and adjoining counties of North Carolina, recently declared by the Legislature of North Carolina to be Cherokees, and formerly known as Croatans, and report to Congress what tribal rights, if any, they have with any band or tribe; whether they are entitled to have or receive any lands, or whether there are any moneys due them, their present condition, their educational facilities, and such other facts as would enable Congress to determine
whether the government would be warranted in making suitable provision for their support and education.
In conformity with this request the Secretary of the Interior caused an investigation to be made by Special Indian Agent, O. M. McPherson, and his report is dated September 19, 1914, and is quite full, showing a careful
investigation on the ground, as well as historical research. This report was committed by the Secretary of Interior, to the President of the Senate, on January 4th, 1915, and is entitled: "Report on Condition and Tribal Rights of the Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina." This report contains 252 printed pages, from which we have
gathered much information embraced in this historical sketch.
We have also examined a booklet prepared by Hon. Hamilton McMillan, of Fayetteville, N. C., who has made an extensive study and investigation of the Croatans, entitled: "Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony." We have also
examined the sketch entitled: "The Lost Colony of Roanoke, Its Fate and Survival," by one of our State's historians, Hon. Stephen B. Weeks. We have also examined Samuel A. Ashe's History
of North Carolina, also Vol. 2 of Hawk's History of North Carolina; also a work entitled: "Handbook of American Indians."
These historical records, the family history and traditions, together with such information as was attainable from the United States' Census of 1910, and the school and tax records of Sampson County, form the basis of
the information set out in this sketch.
The Croatan Indians comprise a body of mixed-blood people residing chiefly in Sampson, Robeson, Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Scotland, Richmond and Hoke counties, in North Carolina; and in Sumpter, Marlboro,
and Dillon counties, South Carolina. They are called Red Bones in South Carolina, but probably belong to the same class of people as those residing in North Carolina. In the Eleventh Census, of 1890, under the title of North Carolina Indians, they are described as "generally white, showing the Indian mostly in actions and habits." It is stated that,
"They are enumerated by the regular census enumerator in part as whites; that they are clannish and hold with considerable pride to the tradition that they are the descendants of the Croatans of the Raleigh period of North Carolina and Virginia."
They are described in the Hand Book of American Indians, as a people evidently of mixed Indian and white blood, found in various sections in the eastern part of North Carolina, but chiefly in Robeson County. It is also stated that for many years they were classed with the free negroes, but steadfastly refused to accept such classification or to attend negro schools or churches, claiming to be the descendants of the early native tribes and white settlers who had intermarried with them.
A bulletin of the Thirteenth Census (Census of 1910), "Indians of North Carolina," shows their number to be as follows:
Bladen County . . . . . 36
Columbus County . . . . . 12
Cumberland County . . . . . 48
Scotland County . . . . . 74
Union County . . . . .10
Harnett County . . . . . 29
Sampson County . . . . . 213
Robeson County . . . . . 5,895
Total in North Carolina . . . . . 6,317
The Indian Office at Washington had no knowledge of the existence of the Croatan Indians until the latter part of 1888, when that office received a petition sent by fifty-four of these Indians describing themselves as "a part of the Croatan Indians living in Robeson County," and claiming to be "a remnant of White's Lost Colony," and petitioned
Congress for aid. On January 11, 1889, the directors of the Ethnological Bureau in response to this petition replied:
"I beg leave to say that Croatan was in 1585 and thereabouts the name of an island and Indian village just north of Cape Hatteras, N. C. White's Colony of 120 men and women was landed on Roanoke Island just to the north
in 1587, and in 1590 when White returned to revisit the colony he found no trace of it on Roanoke Island, save the name 'Croatan' carved upon a tree, which, according to a previous understanding, was interpreted to mean that
the colonists had left Roanoke Island for Croatan. No actual trace of the missing colonists was ever found, but more than 100 years afterwards Lawson obtained traditional information from the Hatteras Indians which led him to believe that the colonists had been incorporated with the Indians. It was thought that traces of white blood could be discovered
among the Indians, some among they having grey eyes. It is probable that the greater number of the colonists were killed; but it was quite in keeping with Indian usages that a greater or less number, especially women and children, should have been made captive and subsequently incorporated into the tribe."
WHITE'S LOST COLONY
There is a tradition among these Indians that their ancestors were white people, a part of Gov. White's Lost Colony, who amalgamated with the coast Indians and afterwards removed
to the interior, where they now reside. It is a matter of common knowledge that the Indians are a people of "traditions," being entirely destitute of written records. These traditions would be of little value were they not
supported by authentic historical data.
Governor White left a colony of 120 men and women from England on Roanoke Island in 1587, and when he returned in 1590, he found no trace of the colony save the word "Croatan" carved upon a tree. According to a
secret understanding which White had with the colonists before he returned to England, if they departed from Roanoke Island before his return they were to carve upon the trees or posts of doors "the name of the place where they should be seated." When White and his men returned in 1590
where they had left the colony three years before, they saw upon a tree carved in Roman letters the word "CROATAN" without any cross or sign of distress about the word, for he had the understanding that if any misfortune came to them they should put a cross over the word.
One of the early maps of the Carolina coast, which appears in Lederer's Travels, prepared in 1666, represents Croatoan as an island south of Cape Hatteras. Croatan is made as a part of the mainland directly west of Roanoke Island. Governor White indicates that the colony originally
removed to Croatoan, and not Croatan.
The term Croatan, or Croatoan was applied by the English to the friendly tribe of Manteo, whose chief abode was on the island on the coast southward from Roanoke. The name Croatan seems to indicate a locality in the territory claimed by Manteo and his tribe. Manteo was one of two
friendly Indians who had been carried to England by Sir Richard Grenville, and returned with Governor White, on the occasion of his first voyage in 1587. By direction of Sir Walter Raleigh, Manteo was baptized and in reward for his services to the English he was designated "Lord of Roanoke."
McMillan in his pamphlet says:
"It is evident from the story of Governor White, that the colonists went southward along the coast to Croatoan Island, now a part of
Carteret County, in North Carolina, and distant about 100 miles in a direct line from Albemarle Sound."
Dr. Hawks, in his history, speaks of this tribe as the "Hatteras Indians." From the first appearance of the English, relations of the most friendly character were known to exist between this tribe and the colony.
Manteo was their chief.
The Hatteras Indians are described in the Hand Book of American Indians as follows:
"HATTERAS;--An Algonquian tribe living in 1701 on the sand banks about C. Hatteras, N. C., E. of Pamlico Sound, and frequenting Roanoke Id. Their single village, Sandbanks, had then only about 80 inhabitants. They showed
traces of white blood and claimed that some of their ancestors were white.
They may have been identical with the Croatan Indians (q. c.), with whom Raleigh's colonists at Roanoke Island are supposed to have taken refuge."
John Lawson was an early English explorer who left a permanent record of his travels among the tribes of the Carolinas. He commenced his journey on December 28th, 1700. Lawson's History of North Carolina is regarded as
the standard authority for the period it covers, and he says that there was a band of Indians in the eastern part of North Carolina known as Hatteras Indians, that had lived on Roanoke Island and that these told him
that many of their ancestors were white people and could "talk in a book."
That many of these Indians had grey eyes that were found among no other Indians, that they were friendly to the English and were ready to do all friendly services.
He says it is probable that White's Colony miscarried for want of timely supplies from England, or through the treachery of the natives, for we may reasonably suppose that the English were forced to cohabit with them and that in process of time, they conformed themselves to the manners
of their Indian relations.
John Lawson travelled among the Indians of North Carolina before they had come in contact with any of the white settlers, and found the same tribe of Indians residing on the south side of the Neuse River known as the Coree Tribe. One
of the head men of this tribe was an Indian of the name of Enoe-Will, who travelled several days with Lawson as his guide. Speaking of this Indian Lawson says: "Our guide and land-lord, Enoe-Will, was the best and most agreeable temper that ever I saw within an Indian. Being always ready to serve not out of gain but real affection."
Lawson had with him his Bible, and Enoe-Will, his guide, was accompanied by his son Jack, 14 years old, and Enoe-Will requested Lawson to teach his son "to talk in his book" and "to make paper speak, which was called our way of writing."
From McPherson's Report, commenting on the above, we copy as follows:
"The presence of grey eyes and fair skin among these people in Lawson's time can not be explained on any other hypothesis than that of amalgamation with the white race; and when Lawson wrote (1709) there was a tradition among the Hatteras Indians that their ancestors were white
people 'and could talk in a book;' and that 'they valued themselves extremely for their affinity to the English and were ready to do them all friendly offices.' I have already referred to the fact that Enoe-Will, a Coree Indian, who had been raised on the coast and who was probably nearly 70 years of age when he acted as Lawson's guide, knew that the English
could 'talk in a book' and as he further expressed it, 'could make paper talk,' indication that he was familiar with the customs of the English.
"Couple this with the fact that the guide had an English name, 'Will,' which he probably assumed at the age of 20 or 21, and the information previously given by him that he lived on Enoe Bay when he was a boy leads quite certainly to the conclusion that the Corees had come in contact with
at least some portion of the lost colony. It must be remembered that when Will was a boy there were no English settlements on the east coast of North Carolina other than White's Lost Colony.
"Their religion and idea of faith was more exalted than was common among the savages, and leads to the belief that they had had communication with the more civilized race from the East.
"There is an abiding tradition among these people at the present time that their ancestors were the Lost Colony, amalgamated with some tribe of Indians. This tradition is supported by their looks, their complexion, color of skin, hair and eyes, by their manners, customs and habits, and by
the fact that while they are, in part, of undoubted Indian origin, they have no Indian names and no Indian language--not
even a single word--and know nothing of Indian customs and habits.
"Speaking of the language of this people, Mr. McMillan says: 'The language spoken is almost pure Anglo-Saxon,' a fact which we think affords corroborative evidence of their relation to the Lost Colony of White. Mon (Saxon) is used for man, father is pronounced 'fayther,' and a tradition is usually begun as follows: 'Mon, my fayther told me that his fayther
told him,' etc. 'Mension' is used for measurement, 'aks' for ask, 'hit' for it, 'hosen' for hose, 'lovend' for loving, 'housen' for houses. They seem to have but two sounds for the letter 'a,' one like a short 'o.' Many of the words in common use among them have long been obsolete in English-speaking countries."
Col. Fred A. Olds, a newspaper correspondent of Raleigh, says of their language:
"The language spoken by the Croatans is a very pure but quaint old Anglo-Saxon, and there are in daily use some 75 words which have come down from the great days of Raleigh and his mighty mistress, Queen Elizabeth.
These old Saxon words arrest attention instantly. For man they say 'mon,' pronounce father 'fayther,' use 'mension' for measurement, 'ax' for ask, 'hosen' for hose, 'lovend' for loving, 'wit' for knowledge, 'housen' for houses; and many other words in daily use by them have for years been
entirely obsolete in English-speaking countries.
"Just when the colonists and Indians, with whom they amalgamated, removed to the interior is not certainly known, but it is believed to have been as early as 1650. At the coming of the first white settlers to what is now known as Robeson County, there was found located on the banks of
the Lumber River a large tribe of Indians, speaking the English language, tilling the soil, owning slaves, and practicing many of the arts of civilized life. And what is of greater significance, a very large number of the names appearing among the Lost Colony are to be found among the
Croatan Indians, a fact inexplicable upon any other hypothesis than that the Lost Colony amalgamated with the Indians.
"Those names, common to both, are printed in italics in the McMillan Booklet. Mr. McMillan adds:
"'The writer has been much interested in investigating the tradition prevalent among the Croatans, and expresses his firm conviction that they are descended from the friendly tribes found on our east coast in 1587, and also descended from the lost colonists of Roanoke, who amalgamated
with this tribe.'
"From the foregoing I have no hesitancy in expressing the belief that the Indians which originally settled in Robeson and adjoining
counties in North Carolina were an amalgamation of the Hatteras Indians with Governor White's Lost Colony; the present Indians are their descendants with further amalgamation with the early Scotch and Scotch-
Irish settlers, such amalgamation continuing down to the present time, together with a small degree of amalgamation with other races.
"I do find that the Hatteras Indians or the so-called Croatan Indians ever had any treaty relations with the United States, or that they have any tribal rights with any tribe or band of Indians; neither do I find that they have received any lands or that there are any moneys due them."
McPherson says, that in investigating the traditions prevalent among this singular people he found many family names identical with those of the Lost Colony of 1587. He publishes a list of the names of all of the men, women and children of the Roanoke colony, which arrived in Virginia,
and remained to inhabit there. We give below a list of the names of this lost colony as follows:
Thomas Gramme, or Graham, Graeme
BOYS AND CHILDREN
CHILDREN BORN IN VIRGINIA
All of the above names in italics are today Indian names in Robeson, Sampson and adjoining counties, and in addition to these we have the following Indian names in Sampson County, to-wit: Jacobs, Goodman, Simmons, Ammons, Brewington, Mainor, Manuel or Emanuel, Jones, Bedsole,
Faircloth, Harding and Warrick.
The Croatans were first found over two hundred years ago in Eastern North Carolina, on the banks of the Neuse, Cape Fear, Lumbee, Coharee, and South Rivers in Sampson and adjoining counties where they are living to this day and are found nowhere else.
TRACING THEIR WANDERINGS AND FINAL LOCATION
McPherson, in his report, says that the region inhabited by the Croatans is a low woodland, swampy region, locally known as pocosin land, abounding in whortleberries and black berries, which bring some revenue to the people. Commenting upon this part of McPherson's report Dr. Weeks says:
"This was probably on the upper waters of the Neuse, in what may now be Wayne and Lenoir Counties. It is probable that they were rejoined by those who had not undertaken the expedition towards Virginia, and from this point they could have passed easily into Sampson and Robeson Counties in
conformity with their traditions, as related by Mr. McMillan."
Their ancestors, the Cherokees, according to their tradition, had their principal abiding place in the mountains to the west, and had trails or roads leading to various points on the coast. On the principal one of these roads, known as the Lowree Road, they had settlements on the Neuse
River, on the waters of Black River, on the Cape Fear, Lumbee, and as far as the Santee in South Carolina. Their principal settlement was in the territory along the Lumbee and covering a large part of the present county of Robeson, and extending through what is now Cumberland County as far as Averysboro on the Cape Fear. They had other trails leading from the mountains eastward, and three of them united with the Lowrie Road or trail where there was a crossing of the Cape Fear, where the present town of
Fayetteville is now situated.
A Rev. Mr. Blair, who was a missionary to the settlement on the eastern coast of North Carolina, wrote to Lord Weymouth in 1703, regarding the Indian tribe with which he came in contact, and refers to them as a great nation of Indians and very civilized people. McPherson says that there is reason to believe that the descendants of the colony were living in the country southeast of the Pamlico, at the time that Mr. Blair writes, and that they emigrated westward toward the interior, where a large body of Croatan Indians and descendants of the lost colonists had previously
located. It is probable that the civilized Indians mentioned were a portion of the Croatan Indians as there was no other tribe to which the reference could apply.
In 1703, there were no settlements of white men known to exist beyond the region around Pamlico Sound. Subsequent to that date white emigrants penetrated the wilderness, and in 1729 there was a settlement made on Hearts Creek, a tributary of the Cape Fear and near the site of the
present town of Fayetteville. Scotchmen arrived in what is now known as Richmond County in North Carolina as early as 1700. French Huguenots penetrated as far north as the southern boundary of North Carolina in the early part of the eighteenth century.
At the coming of the white settlers there was found located on the waters of the Lumbee River a large tribe of Indians speaking English, tilling the soil, owning slaves, and practicing many of the arts of civilized life. They held their lands in common, and land titles only became known on the approach of the white men. The first grant of land to
any of this tribe of which there is written evidence, was made by King George II, in 1732, to Henry Berry and James Lowrie, two leading men of the tribe, and was located on Lowrie Swamp, east of the Lumber River in
the present county of Robeson. A subsequent grant was made to James Lowrie in 1738. These people were hospitable, and friendly relations were established between them and their white neighbors. These Indians built
good roads connecting the distant settlements with their principal seat on the Lumbee, as the Lumber River was
then called. One of the great roads constructed by them can be traced from a point on Lumber River for 20 miles to an old settlement near the mouth of Hearts Creek, now Cross Creek. Another highway still bearing the name
of Lowrie Road, and used at this day as a public road, extends from the town of Fayetteville, through Cumberland and Robeson counties, in a southwest direction toward an ancient Croatan settlement on the Pee Dee.
Henry Berry, the grantee previously mentioned, was a lineal descendent of the English Colonist, Henry Berry, who was left on Roanoke Island in 1587. Many of this tribe served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and received pensions within the memory of persons yet
From Hamilton McMillan's booklet, "Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony,"
we quote as follows:
"At an early period after the English colony became incorporated with the tribe, they began to emigrate westward. The first settlement made was probably in what is now Sampson County on several small rivers, tributary
to Black River. (These were probably Big Coharie and Little Coharie.) A portion located on the Cape Fear near a place now bearing the name of 'Indian Wells' and at Hearts Creek in Cumberland County, now Fayetteville.
It is impossible to ascertain at what date the tribe located in Robeson, but it is probable that they have resided there for 200 years. According to their universal tradition they were located there long before the troubles with the Tuscaroras began in 1711. Some of the tribe fought under 'Bonnul' as they term Col. Barnwell, and we have reliable evidence that
they brought home a few Mattamuskeet Indians as prisoners and slaves. The descendants of these Mattamuskeets had their traditions also. The name of Dare was not recognized by them in first investigation but we afterwards discovered that they pronounce the name variously as Darr, Durr, and Dorr.
This discovery was made when we related to an old chronicler of the tribe the story of Virginia Dare, the first white child born on American soil. This name Dorr or Durr has disappeared on the Lumber River since the War
of 1812. The name Dorr appears on the muster roll of a company composed in part of Indians from Robeson County which served during that war, in the United States Army.
Several chroniclers, or old persons who keep the traditions of the tribe, have informed us that there are families bearing the name of Dorr or Durr, to be found in the Western North Carolina who are claimed by the tribe as descended from the English Colonists of Roanoke.
These chroniclers affirm that the Dares, Coopers, Harvies, and others retained their purity of blood and were generally the pioneers in emigration. Many names are corrupted, so that it is difficult to trace their history. The name of Goins was originally O'Guin, as appears from ancient court records. The name of Lumber, as applied to the river was originally Lumbee or Lombee. The name of Manteo is not familiar to them.
While they have a tradition of their leader or chief who went to England, yet they have preserved no name for him. The nearest approach to the name Manteo, is Maino or Mainor. An old woman, whom we interviewed, spoke of their great man as Wonoke. This name may be a corruption of Roanoke, for we must remember Manteo was made Lord of Roanoke."
Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, in his article entitled, "The Lost Colony of Roanoke, Its Fate and Survival," we quote as follows:
"The other end of the chain is to be found in a tribe of Indians now living in Robeson County and the adjacent sections of North Carolina, and recognized officially by the State in 1885 as Croatan Indians. These Indians are believed to be the lineal descendants of the Colonists left by
John White on Roanoke Island in 1587. The migrations of the Croatan tribe from former homes farther to the east can be traced to their present home from former settlements on Black River in Sampson County. The time of their removal is uncertain; but all traditions point to a time anterior to
the Tuscarora War in 1711, and it is probable that they were fixed in their present homes as early as 1650. During the eighteenth century they occupied the country as far west as the Pee Dee, but their principal seats were on Lumber River, in Robeson County, and extended along it for twenty
"The Croatans fought under Colonel Barnwell against the Tuscaroras in 1711, and the tribe of today speak with pride of the stand taken by their ancestors under "Bonnul" for the cause of the whites. In this war they took some of the Mattamuskeet Indians prisoners and made them slaves. Many of the Croatans were in the Continental Army; in the War of 1812 a company was mustered into the Army of the United States and members of the tribe received pensions for these services within the memory of the present
generation; they also fought in the armies of the Confederate States.
Politically they have had little chance for development. From 1783 to 1835 they had the right to vote, performed military duties, encouraged schools, and built churches; but by the Constitutional Convention of 1835 the franchise was denied to all 'free persons of color,' and to effect a political purpose it was contended by both parties that the Croatans came
this category. The convention of 1868 removed this ban; but as they had long been classed as mulattoes they were obliged to patronize the negro schools. This they refused to do as a rule, preferring that their children should grow up in ignorance, for they hold the negro in utmost contempt
and no great insult can be given a Croatan than to call him 'a nigger.'
"Finally, in 1885, through the efforts of Mr. Hamilton McMillan, who lived near them and knows their history, justice long delayed was granted them by the General Assembly of North Carolina. They were officially
recognized as Croatan Indians; separate schools were provided for them and intermarriage with negroes was forbidden. Since this action on the part of the State they have become better citizens.
"They are almost universally landowners, occupying about sixty thousand acres in Robeson County. They are industrious and frugal, and anxious to improve their condition. No two families occupy the same house, but each
has its own establishment.
"They are found of all colors from black to white, and in some cases can not be distinguished from white people. They have the prominent cheek bones, the steel-grey eyes, the straight black hair of the Indian. Those showing the Indian features most prominently have no beards. Their women
are frequently beautiful; their movements are graceful, their dresses becoming, their figures superb.
"Mr. John S. Leary,(*) a prominent politician of Raleigh, and professor of law in Shaw University, was a member of the tribe, and one of their number has reached the Senate of the United States, for Hon. Hiram R. Revels, who was born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, in 1822, and who was
a senator from Mississippi in 1870-71, is not a negro, but a Croatan Indian.
"John Lawson met some of the Croatan Indians about 1709 and was told that their ancestors were white men. White settlers came into The late Mr. John S. Leary wrote Dr. Weeks from Fayetteville, N. C., under date of July 22, 1891:
"I do not know as to whether any considerable number of the 'Croatans' emigrated from the State at any time in a body. Quite a number who were connected with the Croatans in Robeson County left the State at different times. Senator Hiram R. Revels, his brother, Willis B. & Absalom, and two
sistrs, some of the Oxendines, Leary's and Dials; I do not know the exact number. My father's mother was a Revel. born in Robeson County, was 2nd cousin to Hiram. She married an Irishman named O'Leary. Father was born in
Sampson County, on the Big Coharie, his parents having moved to that countyy. In 1806 they came to Fayetteville, where father lived until he died in 1880. Father came from the 'Croatan' stock. My mother was born in France, and was brought to this country by her parents in 1812. Father and
mother were married in 1825. In 1857 my father sent my brother, Lewis Sheridan Leary, to Oberlin, Ohio. While there he formed an acquaintance with John Brown and went with him to Harper's Ferry n October, 1859. He was killed on the 17th day of October, 1859. while guarding what is now
known as 'John Brown's Fort.' I saw this fort for the first time in 1880.
It is a small brick house. I have a grand uncle, my father's mother's brother, living now in the Croatan settlement in Robeson County, 108 years old. As soon as I can make it convenient to see him I will have a talk with him and put on paper whatever information I can get from him and give
you the benefit of it."
the middle section of North Carolina as early as 1715 and found the
ancestors of the present tribe of Croatan Indians tilling the soil,
holding slaves, and speaking English. The Croatans of today claim descent
from the lost colony. Their habits, disposition, and mental
characteristics show traces both of Indian and European ancestry. Their
language is the English of three hundred years ago, and their names are in
many cases the same as those borne by original colonists. No other theory
of their origin has been advanced, and it is confidently believed that the
one here proposed is logically and historically the best, supported as it
is both by external and internal evidence. If this theory is rejected,
then the critics must explain some other way the origin of a people which,
after the lapse of three hundred years, show the characteristics, speak
the language, and possess the family names of the second English colony
planted in the Western world."
Hamilton McMillan in his pamphlet says:
"As previously intimated, the traditions of the Indians now living in
Robeson are sufficiently clear to prove that at an early period they
located south of Pamlico sound on the mainland. Tradition in regard to
their ancient dwelling places on the tributaries of Black River in the
present county of Sampson are more definite. The fact that French,
English, Irish, and perhaps German names are found among them is accounted
for by the tradition that marriages frequently occurred between them and
the early immigrants. The name Chavis which is common among this people,
is probably a corruption of the French name Cheves. Goins was O'Guin, as
court records prove. Leary was O'Leary. Blauc or Blaux is French. Braboy
is of recent origin and was originally 'Brave Boy' and dates back to the
war with the Tuscaroras in 1711 and was conferred on an Indian by the
commander of the English for some meritorious act.
"From the earliest settlement of the country along the Lumber River
these Indians have been an English-speaking people. Their language has
many peculiarities and reminds one of the English spoken in the days of
Chaucer. The number of old English works in common use among them which
have long been obsolete in English-speaking countries is corroborative of
the truth of their traditions that they are the descendants of the lost
Englishmen of Roanoke.
"In traveling on foot they march in 'Indian File' and exhibit a
fondness for bright red colors. They unconsciously betray many other
traits characteristic of Indians. The custom of raising patches of tobacco
for their own use has been handed down from time immemorial.
"In building they exhibit no little architectural skill. In road making
they excel. Some of the best roads in North Carolina can be found
within their territory. They are universally hospitable and polite to
strangers. They are proud of their race and boast of their English
ancestry. Like their ancestors, they are friendly to white men.
"'They never forget a kindness, an injury, nor a debt,' said an old
citizen. 'They may not pay you when a debt is due, but they seldom forget
an obligation and are sure to pay you after a time.'"
In discussing the character and disposition of this people we quote
again from Dr. Weeks' booklet as follows:
"These Indians are hospitable to strangers and are ever ready to do a
favor for the white people. They show a fondness for gay colors, march in
Indian file, live retired from highways, never forget a kindness, an
injury, nor a debt. They are the best of friends and the most dangerous of
enemies. They are reticent until their confidence is gained, and when
aroused are perfect devils, exhibiting all the hatred, malice, cunning,
and endurance of their Indian ancestors. At the same time they are
remarkably clean in their habits, a characteristic not found in the pure-
blooded Indian. Physicians who practice among them say they never hesitate
to sleep or eat in the house of a Croatan."
THEIR POLITICAL AND EDUCATIONAL HISTORY
In chapter 3, of McMillan's Booklet, commenting upon the political and
educational qualities of these people, we quote as follows:
"From the close of the Revolution to the year 1835 they exercised the
elective franchise equally with white men, performed militia duties,
encouraged schools and built churches, owned slaves and lived in
comfortable circumstances. By an ordinance of the North Carolina State
Convention of 1835, the elective franchise was denied to all 'free persons
of color' and afterwards they were debarred from voting till the year of
1868, when a new constitution was adopted. After the adoption of the new
State Constitution, they were allowed the benefit of public schools, but
having been classed for a long period as 'free persons of color,' they
were compelled to patronize schools provided for the negro race. Owing to
a bitter prejudice against negroes, but few availed themselves of the
privilege, the greater part preferring that their children should grow up
in ignorance, rather than they should be forced to association with a race
which they hold in utter contempt. Separate schools have since been
provided for their race by the Legislature of North Carolina, which by
special act, recognized them as Croatan Indians.
"After the year 1835 these Indians, who murmured greatly at the
injustice done them in being classed as 'mulattoes' or 'free persons of
color' became suspicious of white men, and at first we found difficulty in
eliciting any facts relating to their past history."
From McPherson's report to the government, discussing their educational
facilities, we quote as follows:
"Prior to 1835 the male Croatans exercised the right of franchise in
North Carolina, and it seemed to be the current tradition that at least a
few of the children attended the white schools, wherever schools for the
whites had been established in Indian settlements; but for the most part
they were compelled to attend 'subscription' schools organized and
conducted by themselves. By clause 3, section 3, of the amendment to the
constitution of 1835, the Croatans lost the right of franchise, and from
that date until the adoption of the constitution of 1868 they were
regarded and treated as 'free persons of color' which practically meant
free negroes, and during this period they were not permitted to attend the
schools for whites; there were practically no educational facilities open
to the Indians at this time. There were doubtless some subscription
schools, but they must have been of the poorest sort.
"Between 1868 and 1885 efforts were made to compel the Indians to
attend the negro schools, but they persistently refused to do this,
preferring to grow up in ignorance rather than to attend the colored
schools. It would be more accurate to say that parents would not permit
their children to attend the negro schools, preferring rather that they
should grow up in ignorance. The children raised to manhood and womanhood
are the most densely ignorant of any of these people.
"Prior to the adoption of certain amenadments to the constitution on
the second Monday of November, 1835, the Croatan Indians voted and
otherwise enjoyed all the rights and privileges of the elective franchise
for State officials; but clause 3, section 3, of the amendments adopted on
said date provided that no free negro, free mulattoe, or free person of
mixed blood, descended from negro ancestors to the fourth generation
inclusive (though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white
person) shall vote for members of the senate or house of commons. Under
this clause they were subsequently denied the right of franchise."
Section 7, Chapter 68, of the Acts of the General Assembly of 1854,
provides that all marriages since the 8th day of January, 1839, and all
marriages in the future between a white person and a free negro or free
person of color, to the third generation, shall be void. It was held that
the term "or free person of color" applied to the Croatans, but
this prohibition, I understand that occasionally marriages between the
Indians and white persons occurred. I was unable to ascertain whether or
not any such marriages had been declared void.
An amendment to the constitution of North Carolina in 1857 provides
that every free white man of the age of 21 years, being a native or
naturalized citizen of the United States and who has been an inhabitant of
the State for 12 months immediately preceding the day of any election, and
shall have paid public taxes, shall be entitled to vote for a member of
senate for the district in which he resides.
Section 1 of Article VI of the Constitution of 1868 provides that every
male person born in the United States, and every male person who has been
naturalized, 21 years of age, and possessing the qualifications set out in
said article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people in
the State, except as therein otherwise provided. After the adoption of the
Constitution of 1868 the right of franchise was restored to the Croatans.
In the case of State v. Manuel (20 N. C. 144), Justice Gaston held:
"Upon the revolution no other change took place in the laws of North
Carolina than was consequent upon the transition from a colony dependent
upon a European King to a free and Sovereign State. Slaves manumitted here
became freemen, and therefore if born within North Carolina are citizens
of North Carolina, and all free persons born within the State are born
citizens of the State."
Under this decision, which was subsequent to the Constitution of 1835,
which deprived free negroes and free mulattoes of the right to vote, "free
persons of color" (the Croatan Indians) were not included and it seems
that they should not have been denied the right of suffrage.
Section 1 of Chapter 51, Laws of 1885, provides that the Indians of
Robeson County and their descendants shall hereafter "be designated and
known as the Croatan Indians." It should be noted that the act does not
declare that they are
Croatan Indians, but merely designates or names them Croatans, by which
name they shall thereafter be known.
Section 2 of the act provides that said Indians and their descendants
shall have separate schools for their children, school committees for
their own race and color, and shall be allowed to select teachers of their
own choice, subject to the same rules and regulations that are applicable,
under the general school law. The remaining sections of the act provide
for putting the schools into operation under the general laws applicable
to free schools within the State. Prior to this enactment the Indians had
no separate schools for the education of their children. Efforts had been
made to compel them to attend the schools established for the negro
population, but they steadfastly resisted such efforts and absolutely
declined to attend the colored schools.
It seems to be borne out by historical research that these Indians
fought in the Continental ranks during the Revolutionary War. Hon. A. W.
McLean, of Lumberton, N. C., has prepared an exhaustive article on the
history of these Indians, which he furnished to the government and is
included in McPherson's report, and from which we copy as follows:
"After the war, feeling against the local Tories ran so high that they
were discriminated against and severe tests of loyalty were applied. There
seems to have been no feeling against these Indians, for although not
white they were allowed to vote. They voted until 1835, when the
constitution was changed by the insertion of the word 'white.'
"Had they been of the Tory element they would not have been allowed the
right of suffrage, because the feeling against the Tories was very bitter,
especially in that region where they lived.
"During the War of 1812 they were enrolled in the militia.
"Up to 1835 these Indians were entitled to vote, and some of them owned
slaves. A number of them appear as heads of families in the United States
census of 1790.
"After 1835 they were allowed to vote under the reconstruction acts,
and under the constitution adopted in 1868, and were entitled to attend
the negro schools, but not the schools for the whites. But they refused
absolutely to attend the negro schools, and thus were debarred from school
"Attention was drawn to their peculiar social status, and as they
were undoubtedly of Indian extraction, Hon. Hamilton McMillan, who
inquired into their history, reached the conclusion that they were
descended from the Indians on Croatan Sound and derived their white blood
from the Lost Colony of 1587. This idea was based on their partly
civilized condition when first observed by the early settlers of that
region about 1730. Under that impression the Legislature of 1885 provided
separate common schools for them under the name of the 'Croatan Indians.'
"But whatever the origin of the Indians of this community was, it is
certain that from the first settlement they have been separated from the
other inhabitants of that region, and are of Indian descent, with Indian
characteristics, with complexion, features, and hair of the Indian race,
and are now borne on the census rolls as Indians."
It appears from the North Carolina State records that the following
Indians received a pension from the government for services in the
Revolutionary War: John Brooks, James Brooks, Berry Hunt, Thomas Jacobs,
Michael Revells, Richard Bell, Samuel Bell, Primus Jacobs, Thomas
Cummings, and John Hammond. These pensions were granted under the Federal
Statutes of 1818 and 1832.
FIRST SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR CROATANS
February 10, 1885, the General Assembly of North Carolina provided by
law for separate schools for the Croatan Indians of North Carolina. This
act contained the following:
"Whereas, the Indians now living in Robeson County claim to be
descendants of a friendly tribe who once resided in eastern North
Carolina, on the Roanoke River, known as the Croatan Indians, therefore
the General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:
"Sec. 1. That the said Indians and their descendants shall hereafter be
designated and known as the 'Croatan Indians.'
The provisions for separate schools follow in the act.
March 7, 1887, the General Assembly of North Carolina established the
Croatan Normal School in Robeson County for the Croatan Indians, and
February 2, 1889, the same body enacted that all children of the negro
race to the fourth generation should be excluded from the Croatan separate
Indian schools. The Croatan Normal School is at Pembroke.
MARRIAGE WITH NEGROES FORBIDDEN
Section 1, Chapter 254, of the Laws of 1887, amends section 1810 of the
Code of North Carolina by adding thereto the words:
"That all marriages between an Indian and a negro, or between an Indian
and a person of negro descent to the third generation, inclusive, shall be
utterly void; provided that this act shall apply only to the Croatan
SEPARATE SCHOOLS IN OTHER COUNTIES
Section 1, Chapter 488, of the Laws of 1889, provides that the Croatan
Indians of Richmond County and their descendants shall be entitled to the
same school privileges and benefits as are the Croatan Indians of Robeson
Section 1, Chapter 60, of the Laws of 1889, amends Section 2 of the
Laws of 1885 by adding after the word "Law" in the last line of said
section the words: "And there shall be excluded from such separate schools
for the said Croatan Indians all children of the negro race to the fourth
Chapter 215 of the Laws of 1911, provide that the Board of Directors of
the Insane at Raleigh be authorized to provide and set apart at the said
hospital, suitable apartments and wards for the accommodation of any of
these Indians now located in Robeson County.
The "Grandfather Clause" of the Constitution of North Carolina, which
denies the right of franchise to those who are not able to read and write
any section of the constitution in the English language has been held not
to apply to these Indians for the reason that they or their ancestors
prior to 1867, were entitled to vote under the laws of the State.
Consequently, the Indians of Robeson County, Richmond, Cumberland, Sampson
and other adjoining counties, are entitled to vote and have been voting
under the laws of the State and amended constitution, a right which has
been denied the negroes.
The Croatan Indians, a majority of whom live in Robeson County, have
had special recognition in Robeson County by the State Legislature since
1885. They were first recognized
as Croatan Indians. They were afterwards designated in legislative
enactments as Indians of Robeson County. A recent legislative enactment
referred to them as Cherokee Indians of Robeson County; but however, they
may be designated by the legislative enactment, they are the same people
known as Croatan Indians. Since 1885 the State of North Carolina has
wisely provided separate school facilities for this race of people,
separate and apart from the white race and colored race, and they have
received their pro rata proportion of the school funds, together with the
white race and colored race.
The State has provided an appropriation of $2,500.00 for the support of
a Normal School for teachers for these Indians, and Chapter 191 of the
Public Laws of 1913 provides for an additional appropriation of $500.00
for this Normal School.
Sections 4168-9-70-71 of the School Law of North Carolina, as appears
in the Revisal of 1905, under the chapter entitled "Croatan Indians," are
"Sec. 4168. "The persons residing in Robeson and Richmond counties
supposed to be descendants of a friendly tribe once residing in the
eastern portion of this State known as the Croatan Indians, and their
descendants, shall be known and designated as the Croatan Indians and they
shall have separate schools for their children, school committees of their
own race and color, and shall be allowed to select teachers of their own
choice, subject to the same rules and regulations as are applicable to all
teachers in the general school law, and there shall be excluded from such
separate schools for the Croatan Indians all children of the negro race to
the fourth generation.
"Sec. 4169. It shall be the duty of the County Board of Education to
see that the next preceding section is carried into effect, and shall for
that purpose have the census taken of all the children of such Indians and
their descendants between the ages of six and twenty-one, and proceed to
establish suitable school districts as shall be necessary for their
convenience and take all such other and further steps as may be necessary
for the purpose of carrying such section into effect. And where any
children, descendants of such Indians, shall reside in any district in
such counties of Robeson and Richmond in which there are no separate
schools provided for their race they shall have the right to attend any of
the public schools in the county provided for their race, and their share
of the public school fund shall be appropriated to their education upon
the certificate of the school committee in the district
in which they reside, stating that they are entitled to attend such public
"Sec. 4170. The Treasurer of the County School Fund and other proper
authorities whose duties it is to collect, keep and apportion the school
fund, shall procure from the County Board of Education the number of
children in the county between the ages of six and twenty-one, belonging
to such Indian race, and shall set apart and keep separate their pro rata
share of the school funds, which shall be paid out upon the same rules in
every respect as are provided in the general school law and in the next
"Sec. 4171. The general public school law shall be applicable in all
respects to such separate schools for the Croatan Indians, except where
such general law is repugnant to these special provisions relating to such
schools; and these special provisions for separate schools for Croatan
Indians shall apply only to the counties of Robeson and Richmond."
Section 4086 of the School Law as appears in the Revisal under the
chapter entitled, "Public Schools," among other things provides for the
descendants of the Croatan Indians now living in Richmond and Robeson
counties that they shall have separate schools for their children, as
hereinafter provided in this chapter.
Chapter 22 of the Public Local Laws of 1913, amends the school law,
sections 4168 to 4171, by adding "the Indians of Person County;" giving
them the same separate schools as the Indians of Robeson and Richmond
Chapter 499 of the Public Laws of 1907 provides separate schools for
the Croatan Indians in the county of Cumberland, where the census shows as
many as 35 children of school age.
Chapter 720 of the Public Laws of 1909 provides for separate schools
for the white, the colored and the Indians in Scotland County. And further
provides that any child of negro blood shall not attend the Indian schools
for the Croatans in Scotland County.
The Revisal of 1905, Section 2083, among other things, provides that
the marriages between the Croatan Indians and the negro, or between a
Croatan Indian and a person of negro descent, to the third generation,
shall be void.
SEPARATE SCHOOLS FOR CROATAN INDIANS IN SAMPSON
Chapter 263 of the Public Local Laws of 1911 established separate
schools for the Croatan Indians of Sampson County, simply by adding the
word Sampson after the word Richmond and Robeson, in the school laws as is
set out in the Revisal (Sec. 4168 to 4171).
Chapter 100 of the Public Local Laws of 1913 repealed chapter 263 of
the Public Local Laws of 1911, thereby repealing the provision for
separate school facilities for the Croatan Indians of Sampson County.
After the passage of the acts of 1911, giving the Croatan Indians of
Sampson County separate schools, the County Board of Education put into
operation the provisions of that act and during the years of 1911 and 1912
the Indians of Sampson County were provided a separate school from the
other races, and were given their proper proportion of the school funds.
The Indians built, chiefly at their own expense, a suitable and
commodious school house in Herrings Township, Sampson County, in the
center of the Indian settlement, and employed a teacher of their own race,
and had a separate church and pastor from the other races where they held
then and continue to hold separate religious services for these Indians.
WHY THE INDIAN SCHOOL IN SAMPSON WAS REPEALED
This was the first recognition which these Indians had received by the
county and State, providing separate school facilities for their children,
and perhaps would have been continued without any repeal of the act,
except for the fact that the children of one of these Indians, who had
married a mulatto woman, were sent to this school and were by the teacher
and trustees excluded on the ground that these children contained negro
blood to the prohibitive degree.
An examination of the school law for the counties of Richmond, Robeson,
Scotland and Person shows that this family of mixed blood children would
be excluded from attending the Indian schools in these counties, and the
act creating the
Indian school for Sampson County places Sampson County under the same law
governing the Indian schools of Robeson and Richmond counties.
Therefore these particular families of children of mixed blood would
properly be excluded from the Indian schools of Sampson County. But the
fact that they were excluded created confusion and friction in this Indian
school, annoyance to the County Board of Education, and was the chief
cause which led to its repeal by the legislature of 1913.
INDIAN TAX PAYERS IN SAMPSON COUNTY
After the passage of the Act of 1911 recognizing the Indians of Sampson
County, and giving them the same recognition in Sampson County as the
Indians in Robeson and adjoining counties, the property and polls of the
Indians of Sampson County were listed and abstracted on the tax books,
separate from the white and colored. The tax abstracts and the tax books
of Sampson County for the year of 1911 and 1912 show the following tax
payers in Sampson County in the respective townships set out below, to-wit:
M. L. Brewington
G. W. McLean
C. D. Brewington
J. M. West
C. O. Jacobs
R. M. Williams
Jno. A. Brewington
J. S. Strickland
W. B. Brewington
J. R. Jones
T. J. Jacobs
G. B. Brewington
R. M. Williams
H. A. Brewington
R. J. Jacobs
J. H. Brewington
D. W. Williams
J. S. Brewington
D. W. Williams
R. H. Jacobs
J. A. Brewington
R. A. Jackson
W. E. Goodman
K. J. Ammons
C. A. Brewington
SOUTH CLINTON TOWNSHIP
B. J. Faircloth
J. B. Simmons
J. G. Simmons
Wm. Simmons, Sr.
C. C. Simmons
J. W. Faircloth
W. M. Simmons, Jr.
E. R. Brewington
Enoch Maynor, Jr.
W. L. Bledsole
Enoch Manuel, or Emanuel
J. H. Bledsole
W. J. Bledsole
H. J. Jones
A few of the above names were forced off of the tax list of 1912 by
these Indians as they were known to contain negro blood and not entitled
to be classed as Indians.
It will be seen from the above list that there are sixty-two Indian tax
payers listed in Sampson County, for the years named. Wherever these
Indians are found in the County it will be noted that they are living in
groups and in certain sections of the county. There are other Indians in
small numbers scattered here and there in other townships in the county,
whose names do not appear on the tax list separate from other races, but
they are not strong enough in numbers in these localities to assert their
racial status because they realize that it militated against them in
social and other ways to do so, and therefore in localities where there
are few of them they do not desire to alienate the other races in
attempting to assert their rights as people of Indian descent.
EASILY RECOGNIZED AS INDIANS
The above list of Indians will be readily recognized from their general
appearance, their intelligence, the color of their eyes, their skin, their
straight black hair, their facial features, their erect carriage, their
clannishness, their general habits and demeanor, that they are neither
white people nor negroes. They do not resemble the negroes or mulattoes,
in that their
hair is perfectly straight. They have high cheek bones, they do not have
flat noses, or thick lips. Many of them have grey eyes, and often have
rose tints on their cheeks. They are usually tall and erect, they are
cleanly in their habits and mode of living. They are usually land owners,
and more thrifty and industrious. They live and congregate in certain
localities, and are clannish, and in numerous ways show the Indian traits.
THEY WERE NEVER SLAVES
These people were never slaves and from the memory of the oldest white
inhabitants have always been freemen. There is no record that they ever
purchased their freedom from former white men. They were never born nor
sold into slavery; they were found living in this country as free and
separate people as long ago as we have any record of them. In a few
instances there has been some mixture of white and negro blood in them.
The whites and the negroes have not been so careful in guarding against
the amalgamation of those two races as have these Indians, to preserve
intact and prevent their Indian blood from mixture with the other two
races. In a few instances these Indians have intermarried with mulattoes,
but such intermarriages have been discouraged among them, and in most
cases, the parties to such marriages have been ostracised socially from
the churches and schools of these Indians.
FORMERLY THEY WERE ERRONEOUSLY CLASSED AS FREE NEGROES
Since 1868, the white people in Sampson County, as a rule, have classed
these Indians with the negroes and refused to recognize them except as
negroes. They have consequently been forced, in a measure, with the negro
race, but they have steadfastly refused to be classed with the negroes.
They have refused to attend the churches and the schools of the negroes or
to co-mingle with them on terms of social equality. It is marvellous that
they have been able to maintain their racial status so well under the
adverse social and political status which has been forced upon them by the
white people. It shows that they have an ambition to improve their
and to build themselves upward, morally, socially, and educationally,
rather than to be pulled down to a level with the inferior race, with whom
they would be socially classed. It is nothing but common justice to these
people that the white race, which has done so much and is now endeavoring
to do still more, for the education and material progress and welfare of
all the people of the State, of every race, that the efforts of these
Indians to build up and maintain their superior social and intellectual
status from the negro race, should be encouraged in every proper way, as
they have been encouraged and recognized in several other counties of the
State, in which they are less numerous. It will make them better citizens
and at no substantial extra cost to the white and colored race, for them
to have their separate schools and churches. They will feel that they have
not been discriminated against and that they have been treated with the
same fairness and consideration that their people of the same race and
blood are given in adjoining counties.
THE LAWS OF THE STATE RECOGNIZE THEM AS A SEPARATE RACE
Under the law of the State they are not permitted to marry with the
white race, and they are not permitted to intermarry with the colored
race, and by the general law of the State such marriages are declared
absolutely void. They are not required or permitted to be confined, when
insane, to the colored insane asylum, but separate apartments are provided
in the white insane asylum at Raleigh. In every county in the State except
Sampson, they are recognized and provided for as a separate and distinct
race and people from the whites and negroes. The National Government has
been more generous towards the Indians than any other race of people. They
have been recognized and treated as the wards of the government, but until
recent years the National Government did not know of the existence of
these people in this section of the State, and have made no provision for
them. The Legislature of this state has made generous provision for their
segregation, and education in other counties of the state, and would
willingly do so for
Sampson County if requested to do so by the people of this county.
STATE PROVIDES COLLEGES FOR WHITES AND NEGROES BUT NOT FOR INDIANS
The State of North Carolina has provided not only free public schools
for the white race, and maintain the State University and A. & M. College
at Raleigh, but a normal school for girls at Greensboro and a normal at
Greenville, and besides numerous other schools for the whites which
receive State aid. The colored children are provided free public schools
and besides there is provided for their higher education an A. & M.
College at Greensboro, and a Normal School at Elizabeth City and
Fayetteville, a negro University at Raleigh, and other State institutions
at public expense.
It will be seen from the above what ample provisions are made for
academic and collegiate education for the white and colored by the tax
payers of the State. Then is it not simple justice to these Indians, who
are likewise citizens and tax payers of the State, paying their taxes on
property and polls, and also special school tax in local tax districts,
and performing road duties and other public service, living quietly and
peaceably as law abiding citizens of this State, that they should have at
least their pro rata part of the school tax in order that they might train
and educate their own children separate from the negroes, with whom they
refuse to associate and with whom they are forbidden by law to marry. They
have their own school histories which are not taught in the public schools
of the white or colored, and are only taught in the Indian schools.
THE INDIANS ARE JUSTLY PROUD OF THEIR HISTORY
The history of the Indians of North Carolina from the first advent of
the white men on our coast is not an inglorious record, but one which in
many respects is calculated to make the Indians of today proud of their
race and people.
In John Lawson's History of North Carolina, dated 1718, he discusses
the Indians he found in North Carolina with
whom he lived and travelled. We quote the following from his book:
"We have no disciplined men in Europe, but what have at one time or
other, been branded with mutining, and murmuring against their chiefs.
These savages are never found guilty of that great crime in a soldier. I
challenge all mankind to tell me one instance of it; besides they never
prove Traitors to their native country, but rather chuse death than
partake and side with the enemy.
"They naturally possess the righteous man's gift; they are patient
under all afflictions, and have a great many other natural virtues, which
I have slightly touched throughout the account of these savages.
"They are really better to us than we are to them; they always give us
victuals at their quarters, and take care we are armed against hunger and
thirst; we do not so by them, (generally speaking) but let them walk by
our doorway hungry, and do not often relieve them. We look upon them with
scorn and disdain and think them little better than beasts in Humane
shape, though if well examined, we shall find that, for all our religion
and education, we possess more moral deformities and evils than these
savages do, or are acquainted withal."
BETTER EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES SHOULD BE PROVIDED
Special Indian Agent O. M. McPherson, in his report to the government
on the Croatan Indians, made in 1914, speaks of the character and needs of
these Croatan Indians as follows:
"In addition to the common or district schools and the normal schools
for both white and colored children, the State of North Carolina has
provided the youth of both these races with institutions of learning
imparting instruction in agriculture and mechanic trades, and to some
extent in domestic science; but there are no such schools of higher
instruction open to these Indians. As I understand the matter they are
prohibited by law from attending these higher institutions established for
the education of white and colored youth. It is conjectured that the very
limited number of these Indians, compared with the white and colored
population, accounts for this discrimination.
"I might say here that in my judgment, the children of these Indians,
as a rule, are exceedingly bright, quick to learn from books, as well as
from example, and are very eager to obtain further educational advantages
than are now open to them. If the reverse were true, there would be little
encouragement to furnish them with higher institutions of learning when
they were incapable of taking advantage of their present educational
facilities or indifferent about obtaining a higher education; but I
believe the more ambitious of their youth to be eager to attend higher
institutions of learning than those now provided.
"While these Indians are essentially an agricultural people, I believe
them to be as capable of learning the mechanical trades as the average
Hon A. S. McLean, of Lumberton, N. C., in his historical sketch of
these Indians, and in discussing their educational advantages, says:
"Under the laws of North Carolina, which provide for the absolute
separation of the races, they are not entitled to attend the University
for men, the state normal and industrial college for women or the
agricultural and mechanical college for either the white or negro races.
They are therefore entirely without the facilities for industrial or
higher academic education."
INDIAN TAXES IN SAMPSON WILL SUPPORT AN INDIAN SCHOOL
After the Legislature of 1911 provided for separate schools for the
Indians of Sampson County, the County Board of Education established an
Indian school in Herrings Township. They were given their pro rata of the
appropriation from the school fund. It will be seen above, in the list of
tax payers in Herrings Township, that there were twenty-seven Indian tax
payers in Herrings Township. The census of the Indian school children for
1912, according to the record in the office of the County Superintendent
of Sampson County, shows 27 male and 20 female Indian children in that
Indian school district. And the records further show that every one of
these male and female Indian children were enrolled as pupils in that
school. This is a very remarkable record, it could not be better, and is
probably not equalled by any other school district in the county. It shows
how keenly these Indians appreciate this recognition on the part of the
county and State school officials.
For the year 1912 this school had an Indian teacher for twenty-five
dollars per month and received eighty days, or four months school, at a
total cost of one hundred dollars. The year 1912 is the only year that
these Indians received any separate school funds for their Indian school
as the act was repealed in 1913. Before 1912 and since 1912 they have been
attempting to support their schools from their own private
donations. By reference to the tax abstracts showing the Indian property
and poll for the support of this school, we find from the official records
of Sampson County that the Indian property, real and personal for the year
1911 was $15,812.00. That there were 43 polls at $1.50 per poll, which
goes to the school fund, amounting to $64.50, and the school taxes at 20
cents on each $100.00 valuation amounted to $31.62, making a total of
$96.12. They received from donations $5.50, making a total of $101.62.
This shows that this Indian school was entirely supported by the taxes on
the polls and property of the Indians of Sampson County, and was no burden
upon the other races. In addition to this fund we should consider their
pro rata part of the fines and forfeitures and the funds received from the
It will be readily seen that if they had received their full pro rata
part of the school fund from all these sources they would have received a
sufficient fund to have given them all a four months and prehaps a six
months school, without any burden upon the other tax payers of the county.
SAMPSON EXCEEDS ALL OTHER COUNTIES, EXCEPT ROBESON, IN INDIAN POLLS AND
We give below a table showing the number of Indian polls and valuation
of property listed for taxation by the Indians for the year 1912, in the
counties of Robeson, Scotland, Hoke, Richmond, Person and Sampson, taken
from the Report of the State Tax Commission for 1912:
Person County 14 $ 2,890
Hoke County 13 3,574
Scotland County 38 6,500
Sampson County 56 13,793
Robeson County 960 493,900
The county of Sampson contains a larger number of Indians, and they
list for taxation more property than in any other county, except Robeson,
yet all these counties have provided separate school facilities for them,
FAMILY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CROATAN INDIANS OF ROBESON COUNTY AND
The State of North Carolina has provided separate public schools for
the Croatans of Robeson County, yet have failed to provide separate school
advantages for the Croatans of Sampson County who are of the same race and
blood. The Croatans of Robeson and Sampson counties have intermarried for
several generations, and if their children in Robeson County are Croatans
and are entitled to separate recognition by the State, there is no reason
why their children in Sampson County should not receive the same
recognition. The following is a partial list of the Croatan Indians of
Sampson and Robeson counties who have intermarried:
Simon Brewington of Sampson, married Sallie Harding of Robeson.
Lee Brewington of Sampson, married Ellen Locklear of Robeson.
Lattie Brewington of Sampson, married Ora Cannady of Robeson.
C. D. Brewington of Sampson, married Bessie Chavis of Robeson.
Margaret Brewington of Sampson, married R. F. Locklear, of Robeson.
Martha Brewington of Sampson, married F. V. Manuel of Robeson.
Mary Manuel of Sampson, married A. S. Locklear of Robeson.
May Lee Manuel of Sampson, married Hassie Jones of Robeson.
James Maynor of Sampson, married Flora Sampson of Robeson.
Willie Maynor of Sampson, married Susan Lowery of Robeson.
Frank Maynor of Sampson, married Mary Locklear of Robeson.
Arthur Maynor of Sampson, married Penny Oxendine of Robeson.
Lista Maynor of Sampson, married John Cummings of Robeson.
Dempsey Maynor of Sampson, married Montgomery Lowery of Robeson.
Wiley Maynor of Sampson, married Susan Strickland, of Robeson.
Nathan Brewington of Sampson, married Sally Chavis of Robeson.
James R. Thomas of Sampson, married Ira Chavis of Robeson.
Alfred Thomas of Sampson, married Alice Bell of Robeson.
Luther Maynor of Sampson, married Novella Wilkins of Robeson.
Stephen Thomas of Sampson, married Beady Jones of Robeson.
Simon Brewington of Sampson, married Reba Jacobs of Robeson.
There are several families of Manuels and Jacobs now living in Robeson
County, who came from Sampson County many years ago. Simon Brewington has
been living in Robeson County for thirty-five years. All of his children
Indian schools. He is a brother of H. A. Brewington, of Sampson County.
Betsy Jacobs, a daughter of Jesse Jacobs, married Robert Maynor, of
Robeson, and their children attend the Croatan schools. Robert Maynor's
mother was a sister of Basha Brewington, wife of Raeford Brewington, of
It will be seen from the above that the Croatans of Sampson and Robeson
counties have intermarried for several generations. Their children in
Robeson County are recognized as Croatans and given separate school
advantages, but these people of the same blood who reside in Sampson
County, are now receiving no part of the public school funds although they
cheerfully pay their school taxes for that purpose.
NEW BETHEL INDIAN SCHOOL, HERRINGS TOWNSHIP, SAMPSON COUNTY, N. C.
The community of Croatans residing in Herrings Township, on the waters
of Coharie and its tributaries, petitioned to the County Board of
Education, in 1910, to provide a separate school for their children in
Herrings and Honeycutts townships. The School Board recommended to the
Legislature of 1911 separate school facilities for these people, and
accordingly an act was passed giving them the same separate school
advantages as the Croatans of Robeson County.
A school site was purchased and a school-house was promptly erected,
the Croatans paying half and the county the other half of the cost of the
building and site. Boyd Carter, a Croatan Indian of Robeson County, taught
the first school, the county paid $25.00 per month on his salary and the
patrons of the school the balance.
The Legislature of 1913 repealed this act and since then this school
has been run as a private school by the Croatans of that community, with
C. D. Brewington as their teacher. The above cut is a picture of the
school house and of the school children attending this school.
Prior to 1835 these people claim to have attended the schools of the
whites. In 1859 they built a school for themselves, which was taught by
Alvin Manuel, a Croatan. After the War they were given a public school in
this community, but the effort to force the attendance of children of
negro blood in this school brought on friction and finally resulted in the
withdrawal of county support and disrupted the school.
These children will not attend the negro schools, and without separate
recognition by the County Board of Education will be deprived entirely of
public school advantages. This school has been closed by order of the
County Board of Education, because of friction on account of children of
negro blood attempting to attend the school. These Croatan children now
have no public school nor private school. This school should
[image caption: NEW BETHEL INDIAN SCHOOL Herrings Township, Sampson Co.,
be opened and conducted on the same plan as the Croatan schools of
Robeson, Richmond, Hoke and other counties, and then all friction will
cease, and harmony be secured.
[image caption: SHILOH INDIAN SUNDAY SCHOOL Dismal Township, Sampson
[image caption: JONAH MANUEL AND FAMILY Dismal Township, Sampson County
These children attend Shiloh Indian School]
SHILOH INDIAN SCHOOL
DISMAL TOWNSHIP, SAMPSON COUNTY, N. C.
On July 18, 1910, the Croatan Indians in Dismal Township, residing near
South River, organized "The Shiloh Indian School Clan," with Enoch Manuel,
Sr., chairman, J. H. Manuel, general manager, and W. J. Bedsole,
treasurer. The purpose of this clan was to look after the school of their
children, and to raise funds for that purpose.
Their first school was begun on August 2nd, 1910, with Miss Mattie B.
Cummings, a Croatan of Robeson County, as their first teacher. She did
excellent work. She agreed to teach at $10.00 per month for two months and
including her board cost the Clan only $15.00 per month. On September 23d,
1910, this school held its first commencement. It was a big day for these
people. Mr. A. S. Locklear, of Robeson County, a prominent Croatan and
educator, made the address, and other prominent Croatans of Robeson
attended and took part in the exercises.
Prior to 1911 these Croatan Indians in Dismal Township ran a
subscription school at a cost of from two to three dollars per month for
each child. Since 1911 these people in order to have a separate school for
their children have run a "Company Farm" planted in cotton, and all the
patrons of the school work the farm, and the net profits are turned over
to the treasurer of the School Clan to run the Indian school. The number
of children in attendance ranged from fifteen to twenty. This small number
made the support of the school expensive for each child, but they have not
complained and have never asked the County Board of Education for help but
once, then their request was refused and they did not apply again. They
pay their school taxes each year and often special taxes for schools, but
never have gotten back for their school any part of these taxes. There are
about fifty Croatan Indians in all living in this community, and are in
great need of educational help and encouragement. They have never attended
colored schools, and rather than surrender their racial status they will
continue to support the public schools by taxation and support their own
schools by private subscription, and by a community farm. Enoch Manuel
taught this school for several years, and now the principal of the school
is L. V. Manuel. These people are highly respected by the white people
among whom they live and they show no trace of negro blood. Their Indian
blood is vouched for by the Indians of Robeson County, who have
intermarried with them, and teach in their schools and preach in their
THE INDIAN PHOTOGRAPHS AND PICTURES
We have procured from the homes of these Indian families a few
photographs, showing the type of these Croatan Indians today living in
Sampson County. It will be readily seen that they are neither white
people, negroes or mulattoes. They all have straight black hair, the
Indian nose and lips, their skin a light brown hue, mostly high cheek
bones, erect in their carriage, steel gray eyes and an intelligent
countenance. Where the white blood predominates many of them have beards.
They are the true type of the Croatan Indian and have always resided
and lived in this section and known as "free persons of color." There are
a few of these people that have intermarried with mulattoes, but all those
of negro blood have been excluded from this sketch and no demands or
claims are made in their behalf, as under the law they are properly
classed with the negroes.
We append to this booklet a brief sketch of a few of the most prominent
Indian families prepared a few years ago by Enoch Manuel or Emanuel, a
typical Croatan Indian, now over seventy years old, a farmer in Dismal
Township, Sampson County, also the builder and teacher of the private
Indian school known as "Shiloh" in that township. His photograph and that
of his Indian wife appears in this booklet. He was aided in preparing this
sketch by C. D. Brewington, the teacher of the Indian school in Herrings
Township, and who was educated at the Croatan Normal School in Robeson
County. His picture also appears in this sketch.
BRIEF SKETCH OF A FEW PROMINENT INDIAN FAMILIES OF SAMPSON COUNTY
BY ENOCH EMANUEL AND C. D. BREWINGTON
SKETCH OF THE EMANUEL FAMILY
The mixed race of people living in Sampson County are sure that the
statements given to us by our ancestors concerning our origin are true. We
have only asked for Indian prestige, while we know in our veins also flows
the blood of our white ancestors.
We have always been told by our fathers and mothers that we were mixed
with the lost colony of the Roanoke. We therefore are a mixture of
Governor White's colony and the original Indians.
I have been requested to write a short history of our race. I am
seventy years old, and have spent my life among my people. I have taught
the schools in the Indian community for the past thirty-five or forty
years. Though we were not known in the public mind as Indians, yet I knew
all the while that we were pure white and Indian descent.
Nicholas Emanuel, who was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and
fought side by side with the white soldiers, was my grandfather. He was
the son of one Ephraim Emanuel, the son of the first Nicholas Emanuel, who
was said to be the descendant of white and Indian. It was told me that
they married Portuguese women. One of the women was named Mahalie. The
other I do not know. My grandfather, Nicholas Emanuel, married Millie
Hale, a pure white woman, of Scotch-Irish descent. Their oldest son was
Shadrack Emanuel, who was born during the beginning of the Revolutionary
War. All the other children were born soon after the war. Among them was
my own father, Michael Emanuel. He married Pharby Harding, who was the
daughter of Jonathan Harding, white and Indian.
[image caption: ENOCH MANUEL AND WIFE, SARAH E. MANUEL, DAUGHTER OF AMOS
HARDING--Dismal Township, Sampson County]
ENOCH MANUEL AND WIFE, SARAH E. MANUEL
Enoch Manuel and wife live in Dismal Township, Sampson County. He is
now 70 years old. His father was Michael Manuel and lived on South River
and died in 1858. Michael's father was Nicholas Manuel, a soldier in the
Revolutionary War, in John Toomer's Army. His father was Ephraem Manuel.
The records of Sampson County show, book 5, page 222, that in the reign of
George III Benjamin Williams conveyed to Ephraim Manuel 400 acres of land,
lying on the east side of Great Coharie, charging annual quit rents to His
Majesty. We find another deed from Solomon Hardin to Levi Manuel, dated
October 10, 1778, for 125 acres on March Branch and Miry Bottom Branch in
Sampson County, consideration 50 English pounds. There are numerous other
old deeds to the Manuel family on record in Sampson County. The father of
Ephraim Manuel was Nickey Manuel and came from Roanoke River and claimed
to be half white and half Indian. There is no trace of negro blood known
to exist in the Manuel family as far back as they have any record.
Enoch Manuel says that his ancestor, Nickey Manuel, raised Matthew
Leary, father of Sheridan Leary, who was killed in John Brown's
insurrection at Harper's Ferry. Sheridan Leary was a brother of John S.
Leary, a lawyer of Charlotte, formerly of Fayetteville, N. C. (See foot
note, McPherson's Report, last page.) Sarah, wife of Enoch Manuel, whose
picture appears above, was a daughter of Amos Hardin, a wheelright in
Honeycutts Township, and was recognized as a Croatan Indian. This couple
have seven children and numerous grandchildren. They have not intermarried
with the negro race, and their children attend Shiloh Indian School in
Dismal Township, of which school Enoch Manuel was the founder.
My mother's mother was one Lanie Jackson, a white woman. Therefore as
you can plainly see, my father and mother were pure white and Indian. My
wife was the daughter of Amos Harding and Cassie Lockamy, a white woman,
of Irish descent.
We had in our home several sons and daughters. Jonah Emanuel, who
married Luberta Bledsole, daughter of W. J. Bledsole. W. J. Bledsole was
the son of Mary Bledsole, a white woman, his father unknown. He is
evidently a white man, with some trace of Indian blood. Enoch Emanuel,
Jr., also married a daughter of the above W. J. Bledsole. Macy Lee Emanuel
married Hassie J. Jones of Robeson County, a person of white and Indian
descent. All of the above are descendants of the late Nicholas Emanuel and
Many of the members of the Emanuel family have moved to other sections.
They are now living in as many as seven different States of the Union.
Some have spelled our name Manuel; others Emanuel. I have followed the
latter form for our name in this pamphlet.
[image caption: WILLIAM J. BLEDSOLE AND WIFE, NANCY ANN BLEDSOLE, SISTER
OF ENOCH MANUEL--Dismal Township, Sampson County]
WILLIAM J. BLEDSOLE AND WIFE, NANCY ANN BLEDSOLE
William J. Bledsole, one of the most prominent Indians of Sampson
County, was evidently a white man with only a small degree of Indian
blood. His wife was Nancy Emanuel, the youngest daughter of Michael
Emanuel. His oldest son, Luther Bledsole, married Amandy Warrick, a woman
of white and Indian blood. Her father was William J. Warrick, and her
mother Betsie Emanuel. James Henry Bledsole, his youngest son, married
Hannah Warrick, the daughter of the above named William J. Warrick.
This couple reside in Dismal Township, Sampson County. The father of
William was a Croatan and his mother was Mary Bledsole, a white woman.
Nancy, his wife, was Nancy Manuel, a sister of Enoch Manuel, and youngest
daughter of Michael Manuel. The Manuels were large land owners in Sampson
County prior and since the Revolutionary War. There is no record in their
family history or family tradition for over 150 years showing any mixture
of negro blood. This couple have seven children: Docia, wife of Enoch
Manuel. Jr.; Rutha, wife of. Ollin Brewington; Molsy, wife of Matthew
Burnette; Isabella, wife of Erias Brewington; Lou Berta, wife of Jonah
Manuel; W. L. Bledsole, who married Amandy Warrick; James Henry Bldesole,
who married Hannah Warrick. Amandy and Hannah were daughters of William J.
Warrick and wife, Betsie Manuel Warrick, prominent Croatans of Robeson
County. The Bledsole family are good specimens of white and Indian blood.
The Bledsole families are fine specimens of pure white and Indian,
seemingly white predominating their features. I have traced our people
back for seven generations, including the boys and girls of school age at
present, and find only white and Indian ancestors.
THE MAYNOR FAMILY
William A. Maynor, who was born in Sampson County, is a descendant of
Stephen Maynor, who was a soldier of the Revolutionary War, as the records
in Washington, D. C., now show. He was also a descendant on mother's side
of the late Nicholas Emanuel. He has satisfactorily proven before the
courts of North Carolina and Cumberland County that his wife was at least
two-thirds Indian. He has a certificate properly signed by the officials
of Cumberland County, certifying these facts.
The Maynors are said to be descendants of Manteo, the friendly Indian
chief of historical times. (See McMillan's History of the Indians of
SKETCH OF THE BREWINGTON FAMILY
The Brewington family is now the largest of any Indian family in
Sampson County, most of which are the children, grandchildren, great-
grandchildren, and even the great-great-grandchildren of the late Raford
Brewington, father of Hardy A. Brewington. He had several other sons and
daughters. Brewington is a pure English word, which means a brewer of
drinks, and we would also add, one that likes such drinks
[image caption: LUTHER BLEDSOLE AND CHILDREN AND HENRY BLEDSOLE AND WIFE,
HANAH Dismal Township, Sampson Co., N. C. Hannah Bledsole was Hannah
Warrick of Robeson County. She has three brothers now living in Robeson
County who have large families of children, all attending the Indian
after they have been made, which is one of the characteristics that
followed this family for several generations, and even now the evil
practice is overcome only by the very best of training. This name was
first given to an Indian who was considered by the white settlers of what
is now Sampson County, as an excellent maker of "fire water," as the
Indians called it. They called him Bill Brewington. His Indian name was
dropped, and he was taught the language of the English.
Bill Brewington was the grandfather of the late Raford Brewington, just
Bill Brewington's wife was a Cherokee Indian, by the name of Jane
Brewington, who lived a good many years after her husband's death. They
had a daughter, Hannah Brewington, who if now living would be upwards of
one hundred and forty years old. Hannah Brewington is well remembered by
few of the oldest people of the county, namely John Emanuel, Jonathan
Goodman, James Strickland, and others. They describe her as being a true
specimen of the original Cherokee, she being of a copper-reddish hue, with
prominent cheek-bones, straight black hair and black eyes. She bought land
in the year of 1807, as the records in Clinton, N. C., now show, though
before that time she and her people lived on the banks of Coharee, without
any need of buying, as the land was held in common by the Indians of those
The above Hannah Brewington was the mother of Raford Brewington, who
has already been mentioned in this section. She helped a poor illiterate
bound white boy, who was, as we have been told, a son of a soldier who was
killed during the Revolutionary War, while bearing arms for the
independence of America. Soon after the death of his father his mother
also died, leaving the child to provide for himself. His name was Simon,
and as he was placed under the control of a man that owned a good many
servants and slaves, he was given the title that has ever been known as
his name, "White Simon." Hannah Brewington proved to be a friend to this
poor orphan boy, and in time, by early Indian custom, she and he were
married. Soon after the marriage of this couple, Raford, a son, was born
in their home. Simon having no real surname, adopted the name of his wife.
Soon after the birth of the above Raford Brewington, his father left the
State and went north. He has never returned, but was heard from a few
times indirectly. Thus you see the beginning of the Brewington family of
One other son and daughter were born to Hannah Brewinto, namely, Nathan
Brewington and Nancy Brewington.
[image caption: HARDY A. BREWINGTON Sampson County]
HARDY A. BREWINGTON
The Brewington family is the largest family of Croatans living in
Sampson County. Hardy is the son of Raiford Brewington, and the grandson
of Hannah Brewington, who lived in Sampson County from 1775 to 1850. The
records in the office of Register of Deeds in Sampson County show that she
purchased lands in the county in 1807 on Coharee. She is well remembered
by Jonathan Goodman, James Strickland and other old men now living. They
describe her as being a copper-reddish hue, high cheek bones, straight
black hair and a good specimen of the Cherokee Indian. She married "White
Simon," so called because he had no surname, and was half Indian and half
white. After the marriage he took her name and was known as Simon
Brewington. Raiford Brewington was their son and married Bashaby Manuel.
They owned nearly a thousand acres of land on Coharie prior to the Civil
War. Hardy A. Brewington, their son, married Francis Harding, daughter of
Amos Harding. They have several sons and daughters. One son, Rev. M. L.
Brewington, is a minister and affiliated with the Eastern Carolina
Association, which is composed principally of the Indians of Robeson
County. Another son, J. Arthur Brewington, married Polly Ann Jacobs,
daughter of Jno. R. Jacobs and grandson of Jesse Jacobs.
The Brewington family for seven generations with one or two exceptions,
have not intermarried with persons of negro blood, and have retained their
racial status to a remarkable degree.
Nathan Brewington became a great dancer, using the greatest skill and
grace in rendering the famous Indian dances of a hundred years ago. He was
so perfect in his performance that he became almost world-famed for
dancing and fiddling. He took one trip to Europe, and it was said that he
played before the King of England. Finally he returned home and married
one Miss Chavis, of Robeson County.
One of the curses most destructive to our people was the love for
strong drink--whiskey, wine, cider, beer and brandy are drinks that they
once made, and drank freely and to excess. Much of the property owned by
these early settlers was lost by the traffic in alcoholic drinks. We see
that the early habits of these people have been much to the detriment of
younger generations, yet we point to our ancestors with love and
admiration. May their name ever linger in our hearts and minds. Our
ancestors are after all not so different from other people of those days.
We are told that the old "Scot" would sell his horse and pawn his coat for
a jug of liquor, and the now cultured and refined English also
participated in these most destructive habits.
This brings us down to our own time's recollection. We remember the
late Raford Brewington well. If we had the skill we could paint the true
likeness of him as a loved and honored ancestor. He died at the ripe age
of eighty-four years, when the writer was only a boy. Raford Brewington
accumulated quite a lot of real estate and personal property while in the
vigor and strength of his early manhood. He owned nearly a thousand acres
of land between the two Coharies. He had gained all this wealth prior to
the Civil War, and when the Union Army passed through, in 1865, they took
from him two or three thousand dollars worth of provisions
[image caption: Boys--Top Row, Left to Right: M. L. Brewington, son of H.
A. Brewington; Henry Brewington, son of J. Arthur Brewington; J. H.
Brewington, son of H. A. Brewington; Robert Jones, grandson of H. A.
Brewington; June Ammons, son of Ella Ammons. Girls--Bottom Row, Left to
Right: Ollie Brewington, daughter of M. L. Brewington; Bessie Jones,
daughter of Jno. R. Jones: Essie Goodman, daughter of W. E. Goodman;
Bessie Brewington, daughter of W. B. Brewington. All of Herrings Township,
and cattle. The claim for damages for this depredation has been settled by
the Federal Government. He was styled as one of the leading citizens of
his community in his day, and the home that he secured for himself and
family speaks for
him intelligence and industry. His land, though bought by him eighty years
ago, still remains as property of the family. It is located on the east
side of Beaver Dam Swamp. (This swamp was so called by our ancestors
because of the dams found in it that were built by the beavers.)
J. Arthur Brewington is the grandson of above Raford Brewington, a son
of the above mentioned Hardy Brewington, and is now living in the old
homestead of the Brewingtons. He married the daughter of John R. Jacobs
and Polly Ann Jacobs. John R. Jacobs was the son of Jesse Jacobs, and
Polly Jacobs was the daughter of the late Raford Brewington.
Hardy A. Brewington married the daughter of Amos Harding and Cassie
Lockamy Harding, the latter having already been referred to as to her
descent. Nearly all of Hardy Brewington's sons and daughters have married
persons of their own race and color, the majority of them now living in or
near the old Brewington homestead in Herrings Township on Coharie. His
sons and daughters and their children are among the leading Indians of
Sampson County. Rev. M. L. Brewington, being a minister in the Baptist
Church, affiliated with the Eastern Carolina Association, an association
being composed principally of the Indians of Robeson County.
Judging from features and general characteristics, and from the
information given us by our ancestors, with the information we have gained
from our Indian and white friends, we believe that this particular family
is undoubtedly of pure Indian and white blood, white predominating in some
and Indian in other members of the family.
We have traced the genealogy of the Brewington family from "Bill"
Brewington to the present generation, as follows:
"Bill" Brewington and Jane Brewington were the parents of Hannah
Hannah Brewington and "White Simon" were the parents of Raford
Raford Brewington and Basha Emanuel were the parents of Hardy
Hardy Brewington and Frances Harding were the parents of nearly all of
the present families of Brewingtons, which have numerous children of
[image caption: Left to Right: Lee Locklear. Steve Lowrey, French Locklear
French Locklear married the daughter of J. Arthur Brewington, of Sampson
[image caption: LEVANDER MANUEL, SON OF ENOCH MANUEL Dismal Township,
Sampson County. Educated at Pembroke Indian Normal School. Last Teacher of
Shiloh Indian School, Dismal Township, Sampson County]
[image caption: JUNE BREWINGTON, SON OF J. ARTHUR BREWINGTON, GRANDSON OF
HARDY BREWINGTON Herrings Township, Sampson County]
[image caption: C. D. BREWINGTON]
C. D. Brewington, grandson of Raiford Brewington, Herrings Township,
Sampson County. He was educated at the Pembroke Normal Indian School and
taught in the public schools of Robeson County; also taught at New Bethel
Indian School in Herrings Township, Sampson County. He is a teacher and
minister, and preaches in the Croatan churches of Sampson and Robeson
counties. He married Bessie Chavis of Robeson County, a Croatan.
SKETCH OF THE JONES FAMILY
John R. Jones is the son of Martha Jones, and his father was a white
man. Martha Jones' mother was one Polly Jones, a pure white woman, and her
father was an Indian. She was one-half white, one-half Indian. John R.
Jones, therefore, was three-fourths white, one-fourth Indian. He married
Macy A. Brewington, the daughter of Hardy Brewington. They have a large
family of boys and girls in their home, white predominating, seemingly in
himself and his entire family. Martha Jones is now living and says the
above statements are true. Also, judging from her features and general
characteristics, it is a self-evident fact that she is of Indian and white
extraction. The said Martha Jones also has another son and several
daughters, who are undoubtedly of pure white and Indian blood.
[image caption: JONATHAN GOODMAN]
The subject of this sketch is now 76 years old and resides in
Honeycutts Township, Sampson County. His wife, now dead, was Dorcas
Maynor. Their children and grandchildren attend the Indian school in
Herrings Township. Jonathan Goodman's father was Timothy Goodman and his
mother was Nancy Maynor. The records in the Register of Deeds' office of
Sampson County show that Timothy Goodman was a large land owner before the
Civil War, and after his death his widow, Nancy Goodman, was assigned
dower in this land in Sampson County, according to these records. She was
a typical Croatan Indian and showed no traces of negro blood. Jonathan's
grandmother was Nancy Revell, and the Revell family are now prominent
Croatans in Robeson County.
SKETCH OF THE GOODMAN FAMILY
Timothy Goodman is the founder of this particular family in Sampson
County. He is said to have represented in features and general appearance
the Indian race, he having straight black hair, and his complexion being
of reddish hue. His mother was one Sallie Hobbs. His father unknown. He
married Nancy Maynor, a woman who was an excellent specimen of the
Cherokee Indian race. Jonathan Goodman is the son of the above Timothy
Goodman, and we are sure, judging from his general appearance, that he is
at least three-fourths Indian, with only one-fourth white. His first wife
was one Dorcas Maynor, Indian, daughter of Morris Maynor. Many sons and
daughters were born to this couple, after which the first wife died, and
he married his present wife, Lucy Faircloth, who was the daughter of a
white woman by the name of Mary Faircloth. Her father being unknown to the
writer. Mary E. Brewington is the daughter of Lucy Goodman, her father
being an Indian. Mary E. Brewington married James Brewington, a son of
Raford Brewington. They also have several sons and daughters.
SKETCH OF THE SIMMONS FAMILY
William Simmons, the father of most all of the Simmons of Sampson
County, was born in the eastern part of Sampson County, near Faison, N. C.
In early life he married one Penny Winn, of Wayne County, N. C. William
Simmons is now dead, but he has often told the writer that he was of pure
white and Indian descent, and judging from his features and general
characteristics, we are quite sure that his statements were true, he
having long black hair, and prominent cheek bones, and his color
corresponding very strikingly with the real Indian. His wife is living,
and resides near Clinton, N. C. James Simmons, one of the sons of William
and Penny Simmons, is a very prominent farmer, and has accumulated quite a
lot of real estate; also his other brothers have shown a good share of
industry, which has resulted in a similar accumulation. Percy Simmons
married the daughter of Hardy A. Brewington.
[image caption: WILLIAM SIMMONS Sampson County]
The subject of this sketch lived in South Clinton Township, Sampson
County, but died a few years ago. His wife, still living, was Penny Winn
who lived near Neuse River in Wayne County. William's mother was Winnie
Medline, who married Jim Simmons in Fayetteville, and she made an
affidavit in 1902, in order that her son William could vote under the
grandfather clause, that her mother was a white woman and that her father
was an Indian. She further states in her affidavit that there was not a
drop of negro blood in her veins or those of her children. Her son,
William Simmons, had dark brown eyes, straight hair and high cheek bones
and light brown skin. He claimed that his grandfather and grandmother, on
his father's side, were Indians and came from Roanoke River, and never
affiliated with the negroes. William Simmons has eighteen grandchildren
whose parents have not intermarried with the negro race, and these
children are without school advantages except by private subscriptions.
[image caption: BETSY J. SIMMONS Sampson County]
BETSY J. SIMMONS
The subject of this sketch was formerly Betsy J. Thornton. She married
Green Simmons in 1843 in Clinton. She is the mother of William Simmons and
has numerous grandchildren residing in Sampson County who claim to be free
from all negro blood. Betsy had grey eyes, straight hair, high cheek
bones, and in general appearance was half Indian and half white.
SKETCH OF THE JACOBS FAMILY
The Jacobs family formerly lived in Sampson County, but now live
principally in Wayne, Robeson, and other counties, leaving only one or two
persons of that family among the Indians, but several of the female
members of this family have married into the Brewington family, namely,
the wife of J. Arthur Brewington, the wife of M. L. Brewington, who were
the daughters of John R. Brewington; the wife of J. H. Brewington was the
wife of G. B. Brewington, who were the daughters of Enos Jacobs, who is
now living in Coharee, in Herrings Township. He is regarded as being a man
of Indian and white descent, and his wife, who was the daughter of the
late Timothy Goodman and Nancy Maynor Goodman, is almost pure Indian. She
has only a very small degree of white blood. This family are fine
specimens of the Indian race.
THE INDIAN FAMILIES OF SAMPSON COUNTY
The people now living in Sampson, Robeson and adjoining counties of
this State and many other State of the Union are undoubtedly the Indian
race mixed with the whites. Among the most prominent families of Sampson
County are the Emanuels, Brewingtons, Jacobs, Bledsoles, Jones, Maynors,
Stricklands, Simmons, Goodmans, Faircloths and Ammons.
The features of these people betray the fact that white and Indian
blood alone course through their veins. The educational status of these
people is very low, owing to their having been deprived of schools within
reach of their own race and color. Only a few have obtained a fair
education, owing to the above conditions.
The above statements can be verified by John Emanuel, who is now
seventy-four years old; by J. S. Strickland, who is now seventy-six years
old; by Jonathan Goodman, who is now seventy-one years old; by H. A.
Brewington, who is seventy-one years old; by Lucy A. Strickland, who is
now seventy-five years old; by Simon P. Brewington, who is now sixty-eight
years old; by J. L. Brewington, who is now sixty-nine years old; by Enoch
Emanuel, who is now seventy years old; by W. J. Bledsole, who is now about
seventy years old; by Enos Jacobs, who is now seventy years old; by
Matilda Jacobs, who is now seventy years old; by Lucy Goodman, who is now
ninety years old; by Mary E. Brewington, who is now seventy-two years old;
by Penny Simmons, who is now seventy-five years old; and many others.
The subject of this sketch lived on Rowan Swamp and Marsh Branch in
Sampson County at the time of the Revolutionary War. In 1764, a grant from
King George III was issued to him for 200 acres of land on Rowan Swamp.
See Register's Office, Sampson County, book 1, page 474. Later, in 1791,
Cornelius Sikes conveyed to him 36 acres of the south side of Six Runs in
Sampson County, see book 9, page 132. Abram Jacobs was a Croatan Indian,
and was the grandfather of Jesse Jacobs. In 1843 Reuben Reynolds conveyed
78 acres of land to Jesse Jacobs lying on the west side of Great Coharie.
There are numerous other deeds on the records of Sampson County to Jesse
Jacobs. His son, Jno. R. Jacobs, married a sister of H. A. Brewington. J.
Arthur Brewington married Rosia Lee Jacobs, a sister of Jno. R. Jacobs.
There is no trace of negro blood in this branch of the Jacobs family since
1764, as far back as they have any history. Their children and
grandchildren are recognized as Croatans and attend the Indian schools.
[image caption: ENOCH MANUEL, JR., AND FAMILY Dismal Township, Sampson
[image caption: HENRY BLEDSOLE AND WIFE, HANNAH, FORMERLY HANNAH WARRICK,
OF ROBESON COUNTY They now reside in Dismal Township, Sampson County. They
are both fair types of Croatan Indians. Henry is the son of William J.
Bledsole and wife whose pictures appear elsewhere in this booklet.]
NOTE.--In the above sketch of the Jacobs family, there appears the name
of Enos Jacobs, who is now over seventy years old and lives on Coharee and
is a typical Croatan Indian. It will be noted that the name "William,"
"Bill," and "Will" are familiar names in the Simmons and Brewington
families. The occurrence of these two names. "Enos" and "Will," in these
Indian families is a strong suggestion that the origin of the names came
from "Enos-Will," the friendly and intelligent Indian of the Coree tribe
found by John Lawson in 1702 living on the Neuse River, not many miles
from the present habitation of these Indians now on Coharee in Sampson
The Croatan Indians of Sampson County - The End