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Opothle Yaholo/Jim Boy/Campbell's

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Re: Opothle Yaholo/Jim Boy/Campbell's

Posted: 1356905961000
Classification: Query
This is a really good history of the Indian Chiefs that you are interested in

In case you can't get to this site which has pictures of Jim Boy, Menewa and Opothle Yaholo here is copied info:

JIM BOY, or Tustenaggee Emathla -- A Creek Chief born in the present Macon County. A participant at Fort Mims; served in the war of 1813-14; in the uprising of 1836, and in the Florida War of 1837. He died in 1841 in the Western Creek Nation.was born about 1790 in the Creek Nation, the birth-place not known. Tustenaggee is the Creek term for "warrior;" Emathla is a war title, corresponding nearly to "disciplinarian." Nothing is known of Jim Boy's life prior to the outbreak of the Creek War of 1813, where Pickett calls him High Head Jim. He was chief of the Atossees, and commanded the hostile Creeks at the battle of Burnt Corn, fought March 27, 1813. It is not known in what other battles he was engaged during the war. After its close, he settled near Polecat Spring, and there built a little town called Thlopthlcco. In 181S he served under General McIntosh against the Seminoles in Florida. During the Creek troubles of 1836, he attached himself to the friendly party. At the close of these troubles he was solicited by General Jessup to raise warriors for service against the Seminoles in Florida. He and Paddy Carr accordingly raised nine hundred and fifty warriors and with them reached the seat of war in September. Here the Creeks were organized into a regiment war in September. Here the Creek s were organized into a regiment and placed under the command of Major David Moniac. Jim Boy was with his regiment in two battles and in a number of skirmishes in the Seminole war. The battles were the second battle of Wahoo Swamp, fought in November, 1836, and the battle of Lake Monroe, fought February 8, 1837. The Creeks fought courageously in both these engagements.

On his return from Florida, he found that his family had been removed west in the emigration of the Creeks, and that all his property in the nation had been destroyed. He had joined the army in Florida under a promise of the commending general that his family and property should be cared for, and that he should be remunerated for any loss he might sustain during his absence. This promise was not kept. But all this was a slight trouble compared to the death of four, out of his nine children, who were of the two hundred and thirty-six Creeks that were lost in the sinking of the emigration steamboat, Mommouth.

Jim Boy's home in the Creek Nation west, was near Wetumpka, where he died in 1851. The name of his wife was Nihethoye. Rev. William Jim Boy, a well known Methodist minister in the Creek nation, is a grandson.

Jim Boy is described as a remarkably handsome man, full six feet high, perfectly formed and with a commanding air. The late Rev. John Brown of Daleville, Mississippi, who served in the Seminole War, states that on one occasion, at General Jessup's headquarters, he saw Jim Boy, clad in his full war dress, engaged in conversation with the general; that he was struck with Jim Boy's appearance, and with the fact that he was by far a finer looking man than General Jessup.

References--McKenney and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1842), vol. iii, 95, 96; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 521-524; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, pp. 91, 97, 98; Halbert and Ball's Creek War, pp. 125-132, 300-301; Drake's Indians, fifteenth edition, pp. 474, 476, 477, 479.

MENAWA, Creek Chief, born probably at Okfuskee, about 1766, died in the Creek Nation west,--but year of death not known. He was a half-breed, but neither history nor tradition preserved the name of his white father. He was noted in early life for his annual horse stealing., exploits on the Cumberland frontier in Tennessee, but seldom shedding the blood of the settlers, except when he met with resistance. He received, in consequence of these raids, the name of Hopothla, said by McKenney and Hall to mean crazy war hunter. The stealing, of horses by Hopothla must not be ascribed solely to a spirit of adventure. He had evidently inherited the commercial instincts of his white progenitors, and these horses added largely to his wealth. After a few years, he gave up these inroads into Tennessee, largely adopted some of the ways of civilized life and became a wealthy man. He owned large herds of cattle, great numbers of hogs, and several hundred horses. He owned a store, filled with various articles of merchandise suited for Indian life, which he bartered to his people for the products of the chase. He was known to drive to Pensacola, a hundred horses, loaded with peltries and furs. By the time af the outbreak of the Creek war of 1813, Menawa, the name by which he was now known, was one of the wealthiest Indians of the Upper Towns.

When Tecumseh visited the Creeks in 1811, Menawa was the second chief of the Okfuskee town. He entered heart and soul into Tecumseh's schemes, influenced to this action, in a measure, by his hatred of General McIntosh, who, he knew, in case of war, would be on the side of the Americans. While Menawa was the war chief of his people in the Creek war, the head chief was a medicine man, in whose supernatural powers the ignorant Creeks placed the most implicit confidence. Menawa himself was not exempt from this superstition. He fought in several battles of the Creek war, but is best known from his connection with the battle of the Horse-Shoe. The medicine man assured the Creeks, fortified on this consecrated ground, that the Americans would attack them in the rear, in the place where it was swept by the river.

Menawa, just before the battle, posted his warriors in accordance with this prophecy. General Jackson at once saw that the vulnerable point of the horse-shoe was the breastwork in front extending across the isthmus. He at once rapidly moved forward his cannon, and with them made breaches, in the breastwork, towards which the ennesseans made an impetuous charge. Menawa saw the fatal mistake he made by heeding the false prophet; in his furious wrath, he struck him dead, and then, at the head of his Okfuskee braves, dashed forth over the breastwork against the Tennesseeans. The battle which ensued, terminating in the death of near one thousand Creek warriors, has often been described. When it ended, about sunset, Menawa, desperately wounded, lay unconscious amid a heap of the dead. When he recovered, and the darkness grew deeper, the love of life prompted him to escape from the fatal field. He crawled to the river, found a canoe, floated in it down the river to near the camp where the women and children were hidden prior to the battle. The canoe was seen by some of the women, Menawa was taken from it, and sent to an appointed rendezvous on Elkahatchee Creek, where he was joined by other unhappy survivors of the battle.

Three days were passed by them in the mourning for their dead, in which no one ate, drank or permitted his wounds to be dressed. This over, it was resolved that each one should retire to his own home, and then make his own peace with the victors. Their wounds were then dressed, and all, except Menawa, went away to follow out the plan agreed upon in their council. Such is the story of the escape of Menawa from the battlefield of the Horse-Shoe, as related by McKenney and H by Pickett, but may be reconciled with the incidents in Woodward's version of Menawa's making use of a woman's dress while lying wounded on the field. Pickett's statement that Menawa, while lying in the river, breathed through the long joint of a cane, one end of which projected above the water, records something that no human being can do, and this statement, made perhaps in a quizzical mood by Menawa himself, was palmed off upon Pickett's credulity.

In short, Pickett's version must be rejected. Menawa's wounds kept him in his retreat until after the close of the war. He then sought his old home in Okfuskee, but found everything swept away by the war, and he was now indeed a very poor man. According to one authority he and his people made their homes near the falls of the Catawba for more than a year after the war. He regained his health, reassumed his old time leadership over the Okfuskee people, and again was an influential man in the Creek nation. Like the majority of his people, he was opposed to any cessions of land. In 1825, in the excitement following the treaty of Indian Springs, a secret council was held, in which a party of chiefs and warriors were appointed to carry into execution the national law by putting to death General William McIntosh, who, in violation of this law, had presumed to make a cession of land at Indian Springs. Menawa was one of these National executioners. In after years, he regretted his share in this affair, saying that he would freely lay down his life, if by; so doing, he could bring back to life Billy McIntosh. He was one of the delegates that went to Washington to remonstrate against the treaty of Indian Springs. His conduct during the negotiations was calm and dignified, for he was a gentleman in appearance and manners.

In 1835 he sent his oldest son to serve against the Seminoles in Florida. In 1836 he was among the first Creeks to offer his services against his insurgent countrymen, and in combination with Opothleyaholo, he marched with his braves against the hostile town of Hatchechubbee. On this occasion he wore a full American uniform and "affected the conduct of a civilized leader, whose object was to prevent the effusion of blood." This shows a great evolution in his mental and moral attitude, from that of the savage chief in 1814 to a military leader, imbued with the ideas of civilization, in 1836. Menawa was opposed to the emigration of the entire Creek Nation, but wished that certain reservations, to be held in perpetuity, should be granted to such individuals as wished to remain in the ceded territory. Such a reservation was granted to him in consideration of his past services. But scarcely was it granted when "by some strange inadvertence or want of faith, he was ordered to join the emigration camp." He went west with his people, but there is no record of his life in the new country, not even when and where he died. In 1894, Miss Hannah Monahwee, the granddaughter of the chief Menawa, was the matron of the Wetumpka National Labor School in the Creek Nation, Colonel William Robison, Superintendent. Monahwee is another form of writing Monawa.

References.--McKenney and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1854), vol. ii, pp. 97-105; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), p. 590; Woodward's Reminiscences of The Creek, or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 43, 116, 117, 168.

OPOTHLEYOHOLO, Creek chief, born probably in Tuckabatchee, year of birth not known, died in Kansas about 1866, was the son of Davy Cornells, who was the son of Joseph Cornells by a Tuckabatchee woman. On good Creek authority the etymology of the name is "hupuena," child, "hehle," good, and "Yaholo," holloer, whooper. Davy Cornells, the father, was killed by a party of lawless whites in June, 1793, while going under a white flag to see James Seagrove, the Creek agent, at Coleraine.

No facts have been presented of the early life of Opothleyaholo, except that he was considered a promising youth, nor is it known when he rose to the position of speaker of the councils of the Upper Creek towns. His residence was in Tuckabatchee, near the great council house. His first public service was in February, 1825, at the treaty of Indian Springs, whither he went as the representative of the Upper Creeks to remonstrate with General McIntosh against the cession of any part of the Creek country. In his speech before the commissioners, he told them that the chiefs present had no authority to cede lands, which could only be done in full council and with the consent of the whole nation, and this was not a full council. While perfectly respectful to the commissioners, in his speech he warned General McIntosh of the doom that awaited him if he signed the treaty.

Note: Opothle - Yaholo is shown here
as painted by Charles Bird King in 1824

Opohleyaholo left the treaty ground for home the next day. McIntosh signed the treaty and paid for this action.with his life. Opothleyaholo was at the head oú the Creek chiefs that soon after went to Washington to protest against the validity of this treaty, and to execute one that would be more acceptable to his people. In all the negotiations that followed, "he conducted himself with great dignity and firmness, and displayed talents of a superior order. He was cool, cautious, and sagacious; and with a tact which would have done credit to a more refined diplomatist, refused to enter into any negotiation until the offensive treaty of the Indian Springs should be annulled.

The consent of the nation, nor in accordance with its laws, but in opposition to the one, and in defiance of the other, disapproved of it, and another was made at Washington in January, 1826, the first article of which declared the treaty of the Indian Springs to be null and void. Under the new treaty the Creeks ceded all their lands in Georgia except a small strip on the Chattahoochee, which after much negotiation was ceded to Georgia in 1827. On the death of Little Prince in---- Opothleyaholo became practically the principal chief of the Creeks, though he still continued to exercise the functions of speaker of the councils. In the Creek troubles of 1836, Sangahatchee, an Upper town, was the first to rise in revolt, and its painted warriors began to waylay and murder travelers on the highways.

Without delay Opothleyaholo arrayed the warriors of Tuckabatchee, marched against the insurgent town, captured it, and delivered the prisoners captured into the hands of the military authorities. He next, at the request of Governor Clay. called a council of his warriors at Kialgee. and there, taking fifteen hundred of them, he marched to Talladega and offered their services to General Jessup, there in command of the regular troops. The offer was accepted, and Opothlayaholo, promoted to the rank of colonel, was appointed commander of all the Indian troops. The united regular and Indian forces, all under the command of General Jessup, now marched without delay to the town of Hatcheechubbee, where were embodied the hostiles, who, overawed by such an imposing force, surrendered, and the trouble was over.

Shortly after this came the enforced migration of the Creeks from their native land. Opothleyaholo had ever been extremely adverse to emigration west. One of his objections was that the Upper and Lower Creeks could not live harmoniously in close contiguity with each other in the new country, cherishing, as they did, the bitter feelings engendered by the death of General McIntosh. His forebodings were not realized, for after settling in the new country, the old feud was in a measure forgotten, and Opothleyaholo still continued in his
office as chief speaker in the Creek councils. At the outbreak of the great war of 1861, the Creeks divided, the more ignorant position, influenced by Opothleyaholo, adhered to the Federal cause, while the educated and progressive element, under the McIntoshes, were strong adherents of the Confederacy. A civil war ensued, with the result that Opothleyaholo with his partisans, in great destitution, retreated in December to Coffey County, Kansas, where the old chief died shortly after the war. But little is known of the domestic life of Opothleyaholo, whether he had one or more wives. He had a son, born about 1816, who was educated at the Choctaw Academy in Kentucky, and named Colonel Johnson, in honor of Colonel Richard M. Johnson. He had several daughters, said to have been handsome women.
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