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Hnatuk or Hnatiuk Family

Replies: 35

Re: Hnatuk or Hnatiuk Family

Posted: 1382929447000
Classification: Query
Edited: 1383052244000
Surnames: Hnachuk = Гначук and Піцек from Yuzhynetz = Южинець

Hnachuk - Hnaczuk = Гначук is different from surname Hnatiuk. Today your surname can still be found in the Kitsman raion/district > Chernivetska oblast/region > Historic Bukowyna Province, Land of Beech Trees > Ukraine. Grandfather's ancestral village is called Южинець = Juzhynetz (JU pronounced like YOU) and it is located in the Kitsman district. Population appx 2,000.



Orthodox Church Registers for Yuzhynetz have been filmed by LDS (1841-1937)

Iwan Hnachuk/Hnaczuk, son of Yurij (George in English) and Olena (Helen in English).

Olena's surname Піцек. There are still Pitchek living in the village.

Following was taken from Russian site, accounting for the variant spelling:
Пицек В. П. 75 лет (age) Заставна, Незалежності ??, кв ??
Zastavana, district center in Chernivtsi
Пицек Д. Г. 75 лет ??.??.?? Заставна, Незалежності ??, кв ??
Пицек Д. М, 86 лет ??.??.?? т.Кострижівка, Чапаєва ?
village Kostryzhivka > Zastavna
Пицек М. И. 71 год ??.??.?? с.Южинець
your ancestral village
Пицек М. М. 64 года ??.??.?? т.Кострижівка, Богдана хмельницького ?
Пицек М. Г. 79 лет ??.??.?? с.Южинець, Невідома
your ancestral village
Пицек О. В. 43 года ??.??.?? т.Кострижівка, Хмельницького ?
Пицек С.И. 44 года ??.??.?? т.Кострижівка, Хмельницького ?
Пицек Т.И. 36 лет ??.??.?? т.Кострижівка, Богдана хмельницького ?

Yuzhynetz and Kostryzhivka are only 8.2 miles apart. Keep in mind these were agrarian people and inter-village marriage was encouraged. Kostryzhivka has population of appx 3,000 today.
Name: Iwan Hnaczuk
Departure Date: 5 Mai 1908 (5 May 1908)
Estimated Birth Year: abt 1881
Age: 27
Gender: männlich (Male)
Marital Status: verheiratet (Married)
Residence: Juzynetz
Ethnicity/Nationality: Österreich (Austrian)
Occupation: Landmann, Tagelöhner

Ship Name: Badenia
Shipping Line: Hamburg-Amerika Linie (Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft)
Shipping Clerk: Hamburg-Amerika Linie (Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft)
Ship Type: Dampfschiff
Accommodation: Zwischendeck
Ship Flag: Deutschland
Port of Departure: Hamburg
Port of Arrival: Halifax

Volume: 373-7 I, VIII A 1 Band 200
Page: 513
Microfilm Roll Number: K_1804
Household Members:
Name Age
Iwan Hnaczuk 27
Name: Maria Hnaczuk
Departure Date: 12 Nov 1908
Estimated Birth Year: abt 1882
Age: 26
Gender: weiblich (Female)
Marital Status: verheiratet (Married)
Residence: Jurynetz
Ethnicity/Nationality: Österreich (Austrian)

Ship Name: Amerika
Shipping Line: Hamburg-Amerika Linie (Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft)
Shipping Clerk: Hamburg-Amerika Linie (Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft)
Ship Type: Dampfschiff
Accommodation: Zwischendeck
Ship Flag: Deutschland
Port of Departure: Hamburg
Port of Arrival: Cuxhaven; Southampton; Cherbourg; New York

Volume: 373-7 I, VIII A 1 Band 205
Page: 1618
Microfilm Roll Number: K_1806
Household Members:
Name Age
Maria Hnaczuk 26
Clarification of Regional History:

To 1774. In early times Bukovyna was inhabited by the Thracian tribes of the Getae and Dacians. From the 3rd to the 9th century AD various nomads traversed Bukovyna: in the 4th century East Slavic tribes began to appear and the region was part of the Antean state (see Antes); in the 9th century the Tivertsians and White Croatians were the local inhabitants.

In the 10th century Bukovyna became part of the Kyivan Rus’ state. When this state was divided at the end of the 11th century, Bukovyna was eventually incorporated into the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. The church in Bukovyna was administered by Kyiv metropoly until 1302, when it was transferred to Halych metropoly. With the Tatar invasion in 1241 Bukovyna fell under Tatar domination. At the beginning of the 14th century in northern Bukovyna an autonomous territory called the Shypyntsi land arose. When the Hungarian king Louis I defeated the Tatars in 1342, southern Bukovyna came under Hungarian rule. During this period Romanians from Transylvania and the Maramureş region began to settle in Bukovyna. Voevode Bogdan I, the founder of the Moldavian state, freed Bukovyna from Hungary (1359–65). From then to 1774 Bukovyna belonged to Moldavia and shared its fate. From 1387 to 1497 Moldavia recognized the nominal supremacy of Poland. In this period the people of Bukovyna took part in the Mukha rebellion against the Polish and Moldavian nobles (1490–2). From 1514 Moldavia recognized the supremacy of Turkey, and towards the end of the century it became increasingly dominated by that country. The Romanianization of Moldavia, where the Ukrainians played an important role and literary Ukrainian was the official language, and of Bukovyna became more intense after 1564, when the capital of Moldavia was moved from Suceava in Bukovyna to Iaşi. Yet Bukovyna maintained its ties with the rest of Ukraine. Cossack regiments (under Ivan Pidkova, Severyn Nalyvaiko, and Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny) fought on Moldavian territory against the Turks. Some of Bukovyna's population participated in Bohdan Khmelnytsky's national rebellion. Tymish Khmelnytsky died near Suceava in 1653 fighting a coalition of Poland, Transylvania, and Wallachia.

In the cultural sphere, Bukovyna benefited from the achievements of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood and the Kyivan Mohyla Academy. From 1401 to 1630 an independent metropoly (to which the eparchy of Rădăuţi was subordinated) existed in Suceava. From 1630 to 1782 Suceava metropoly came under the metropolitan of Iaşi. From the 16th to the mid-19th century the opryshoks were active in the mountainous part of Bukovyna bordering on Galicia; among them was the famous Oleksa Dovbush. At the end of the Moldavian period Bukovyna was sparsely populated and was economically and culturally backward.

1774–1918. Taking advantage of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, Austria annexed the part of northern Moldavia that included Chernivtsi, Seret, Rădăuţi, and Suceava. Turkey and Moldavia had no choice but to accept this action. The new administrative entity was given the name of Bukovyna (first used in a document in 1412). The Austrian government brought in a series of reforms: in 1781 serfdom was abolished; in 1782 a separate Bukovynian eparchy was established and in 1783 subordinated to the Serbian metropolitan in Sremski Karlovci; in 1873 the eparchy was elevated to an independent metropoly with Yevhen Hakman as the first metropolitan; schools were then founded. Austria opened new sources of immigration into Bukovyna from the neighboring lands—Transylvania, Moldavia, Galicia—as well as from the heartland of Austria and Germany. As a result, there was an influx of Germans, Poles, Jews, Hungarians, Romanians, and Ukrainians, and by the beginning of the 19th century the population of Bukovyna was three times that of 1775. German was the official language in Bukovyna, although Romanian and Ukrainian could be used in transactions with the government.

At first Austria held Bukovyna under military rule. From 1774 to 1786 it was governed by the generals G. Splényi and K. von Enzenberg. In 1787 it was attached as a separate region to Galicia, a status it retained until 1849. During this period, in 1842–5 and particularly in 1848–9, peasant revolts broke out in the Hutsul area of Bukovyna. The peasants demanded social and political rights. Corvée was abolished in 1848. Then elections to the parliament in Vienna were held, and five Ukrainians (among them Lukian Kobylytsia), two Romanians, and one German were elected to represent Bukovyna. On 4 March 1849 Bukovyna became a crown land with an autonomous administration and its own president. It attained full autonomy in 1861, when it was granted a special statute, a regional diet (its first marshal was Bishop Yevhen Hakman), and its own executive.

Writers such as Yurii Fedkovych, Sydir Vorobkevych, and later Olha Kobylianska were the heralds of the 19th-century Ukrainian renaissance in Bukovyna. The first Ukrainian association, known as Ruska Besida in Bukovyna, was established in 1869. In 1870 the Ruska Rada society was founded, and in 1875 a student organization called Soiuz, in which Russophiles at first predominated. From 1884 the populists (see Populism, Western Ukrainian) assumed the leadership in Ukrainian public life. They founded a number of new organizations and published the periodical Bukovyna (1885–1918). Led by Stepan Smal-Stotsky, Yerotei Pihuliak, Omelian Popovych, and Mykola Vasylko, the Ukrainians of Bukovyna made important gains in the political, civic, economic, cultural, and religious fields.

Not until 1890 did Ukrainians win representation at the regional diet and in the Vienna parliament, where their representatives from Bukovyna and Galicia formed the Ukrainian Club. After 1911 Ukrainians exerted greater influence in the administration of Bukovyna. By that year they had 16 representatives in the diet. The vice-marshals of the diet were Stepan Smal-Stotsky (from 1904) and Rev Teofil Drachynsky (from 1911). At the turn of the century the populists split into various parties: the National Democrats (led by Smal-Stotsky until 1911, then by Mykola Vasylko and Drachynsky), the Radicals (founded in 1906 and led by Teodot Halip and Ilko Popovych), and the Social Democrats (led by Yosyp Bezpalko and Mykola Havryshchuk).

Cultural-educational work was carried on by the Ruska Besida in Bukovyna society, which had nine branches in various towns, 150 reading rooms in villages, and a membership of 13,000; by the Ukrainska Shkola society, and by the Sich societies (a sports and firefighting organization). In Chernivtsi the People's Home network was responsible for cultural work. The Selianska Kasa union of agricultural associations headed a system of savings and loan co-operatives of the Raiffeisen type. Ukrainian schools were well organized in Bukovyna; there were 216 elementary schools and 6 secondary schools (4 gymnasiums and 2 teachers' seminaries). At Chernivtsi University, which was founded in 1875 with German as the language of instruction, there were three chairs besides the chair in Ukrainian language and literature whose holder lectured in Ukrainian. Generally speaking, up to 1914 Bukovyna had the best Ukrainian schools and cultural-educational institutions of all the regions of Ukraine.

In the religious field the Orthodox Ukrainians of Bukovyna strove for equality with the Romanians. They achieved it in part on the eve of the First World War. The consistory was divided into two branches—Ukrainian and Romanian. A bishop was appointed for the Ukrainians (Taras Tyminsky); two Ukrainian chairs were established in the faculty of theology; and church publications appeared in Ukrainian. The Greek Catholic deanery of Chernivtsi was subordinated to the Lviv archeparchy from 1811 and from 1885 to the Stanyslaviv eparchy. The efforts of Ukrainians to divide Bukovyna into a Ukrainian- and a Romanian-governed section did not succeed. Ukrainian achievements were accompanied by friction with the Romanians, especially at the turn of the century. Rural overpopulation and difficult economic conditions forced many peasants to emigrate overseas (almost 50,000 left in 1891–1910) and led to peasant strikes in 1901–5 (see Peasant strikes in Galicia and Bukovyna).

During the First World War Bukovyna was a war zone and therefore suffered great losses. In 1915 Ukrainian representatives from Bukovyna and from Galicia organized the General Ukrainian Council in Vienna (with Mykola Vasylko as vice-president).

1918–40. On 25 October 1918 the Ukrainian Regional Committee, with Omelian Popovych as chairman, was established in Chernivtsi to represent the Ukrainian National Council in Bukovyna. This committee organized a massive public rally in Chernivtsi on 3 November to demand that Bukovyna be attached to Ukraine, and on 6 November it took power in the Ukrainian part of Bukovyna, including Chernivtsi. Romanian moderates, led by A. Onciul, accepted the division of Bukovyna into Ukrainian and Romanian sections, but Romanian conservatives under I. Flondor's leadership rejected this idea. On 11 November the Romanian army occupied Chernivtsi and all Bukovyna in spite of resistance from the Ukrainians. The General Congress of Bukovyna, which was hastily summoned by the Romanians, declared the unification of Bukovyna with Romania on 28 November. The Treaty of Saint-Germain, signed on 10 September 1919, recognized Romania's right to the part of Bukovyna settled by Romanians. On 10 August 1920 the Treaty of Sèvres ceded all of Bukovyna to Romania. Official representatives of the Western Ukrainian National Republic, the Ukrainian National Republic, and the Ukrainian SSR protested this action.

The Romanian government canceled all the autonomous powers of Bukovyna and turned it into an ordinary Romanian province. The Ukrainian school system was dismantled; Ukrainian cultural and civic life was restricted; and the Ukrainian church was persecuted (Romanian was introduced into the liturgy). In 1918–28 and 1937–40 Bukovyna found itself in a state of siege. Ukrainians were particularly oppressed when the Liberal party was in power, and they made few gains when the National Peasant party took office. In the 1920s the Ukrainian section of the Social Democratic Party of Bukovyna (led by Vasyl Rusnak) became active. The left wing of the party (under Serhii Kaniuk) became the Communist Party of Bukovyna. In time the Ukrainian National party (1928–38), under the leadership of Volodymyr Zalozetsky-Sas, Vasyl Dutchak, and Yurii Serbyniuk, became the legal political representative of the Ukrainian population. Having reached an understanding with Romanian political parties, the Ukrainian National party won several seats in the Romanian parliament. When Romania became an authoritarian state in 1938, the position of Ukrainians in Bukovyna grew even worse. In the 1930s an underground nationalist movement led by Orest Zybachynsky and Denys Kvitkovsky gained strength. To counteract it, the Romanian government staged two political trials in 1937.

In spite of government persecution, Ukrainian organizations—such as the People's Home in Chernivtsi (headed by O. Kupchanko); the Ukrainska Shkola educational society (led by A. Kyryliv and Teofil Bryndzan); the musical societies Bukovynskyi Kobzar (Chernivtsi 1920–40) and the Ukrainian Male Choir; the Women's Hromada in Bukovyna (headed by Olha Huzar); the student societies Zaporozhe, Chornomore, and Zalizniak; and the Ukrainian Theater (headed by Sydir Terletsky and Ivan Dutka) - continued their cultural activities. The publication of the daily Chas (Chernivtsi) by Lev Kohut, several weeklies—Khliborobs’ka pravda, Ridnyi krai (Chernivtsi), Rada (Chernivtsi), and Samostiinist’—and the journal Samostiina dumka was an important achievement.

Under Romanian domination there were 155 Ukrainian Orthodox parishes (out of a total of 310), 135 Ukrainian priests, and 330,000 church members in Bukovyna. The Greek Catholic church had 17 parishes and 17 priests. In 1923–30 it constituted the Bukovynian apostolic administration with its center in Seret. Then it became a general vicariate subordinated to the Romanian diocese of Baia Mare.

1940–5. On 28 June 1940 the Romanians withdrew from the Ukrainian part of Bukovyna in response to an ultimatum from the USSR, and Soviet troops moved in. By decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August, northern Bukovyna, together with northern Bessarabia and a small part of old Romania containing the town of Hertsa, became Chernivtsi oblast. During the year-long Soviet occupation some radical changes took place in Bukovyna: private property was nationalized; farms were partly collectivized; and education was Ukrainianized. At the same time all Ukrainian organizations were disbanded, and many publicly active Ukrainians were either killed or exiled. A significant part of the Ukrainian intelligentsia had emigrated to Romania or Germany when the Soviet occupation began. When the German-Soviet war broke out and the Soviet troops retreated from Bukovyna, Ukrainians tried to establish their own local government, but they could not withstand the advance of the Romanian army. In July 1941 almost 1,000 Bukovynians fled to Galicia, where they formed the Bukovynian Battalion of 1941 under the leadership of Petro Voinovsky. This company joined the OUN expeditionary groups of the OUN (Melnyk faction) and reached Kyiv. In 1941–4 the Romanians set up a military dictatorship in Bukovyna (which was turned into a Generalgouvernement), established concentration camps, put prominent Ukrainians (Olha Huzar, M. Zybachynsky, and others) on trial, prohibited any kind of civic and cultural work, and introduced total Romanianization. At this time partisan groups sprang up in the mountains of Bukovyna forming the Bukovynian-Ukrainian Self-Defense Army. Under V. Luhovy's leadership these units fought the Romanians and, in 1944, the Soviets.

In March 1944 Soviet troops occupied northern Bukovyna for the second time. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 between the Allies and the Romanians (see Paris Peace Treaties of 1947) recognized the Soviet-Romanian border that had been established in 28 June 1940. The Soviet government created in Bukovyna the same conditions of life as in the Ukrainian SSR.

SubjectAuthorDate Posted
Mighthelp 1311724627000 
LezaBug76 1374342423000 
Mighthelp 1374347071000 
haslbeck 1382924254000 
Mighthelp 1382929447000 
haslbeck 1408467430000 
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