Types of Church Records
| Church Records
This article is part of a series.
|Overview of Church Records|
|Types of Church Records|
|Finding Church Records|
|List of Selected Denominations|
|List of Useful Church References|
This article describes a variety of church record types.
- 1 Baptism and Christening Records
- 2 Marriage Records
- 3 Death and Burial Records
- 4 Confirmation Records
- 5 Membership Records
- 6 Other Types of Records
- 7 Non-Local Records
- 8 Records of Religious Activities
- 9 Circuit Riders
- 10 References
Baptism and Christening Records
When an infant was baptized or christened, the pastor recorded the names of the child and parents. A place of residence may appear, particularly if the pastor was serving a circuit rather than a single church or parish. Some records include names of sponsors or godparents, who were often close friends or relatives of the parents.
The attached image is a transcription of the christening register of Albemarle (Protestant Episcopal) Parish, Surry and Sussex Counties, Virginia, ca. 1739–1741. These entries predate the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in September 1752. Before then, the year began on 25 March. Dates between 1 January and 15 March listed both the current and succeeding year, for example, 5 January 1746/47. Under the present calendar, this date would be 5 January 1747. The transcriber retained the original double-dating system to avoid confusion. In the religious traditions that do not practice infant baptism, baptisms of adults or those who have “achieved the age of accountability” are included in the records. The person’s name is listed, with the date and place of the event included. Sometimes, the clerk noting the event may include other information about the person, such as age and place of residence.
Some denominations required newcomers be baptized even though a baptism had been performed in a church of a previous denomination. Even within a single denomination a second baptism may have occurred. Some early New England churches deemed baptism necessary for acceptance of a church member moving from one congregation to another. Hence there may be a record of baptism in both the former and the welcoming church.
For accuracy of research, and because of the possibility of adult baptism, a date of baptism should not be confused with a date of birth. The two are distinct. Months, or even years, can elapse between the two events. This potential interval between events suggests that a search for a baptism should extend well beyond the year of birth. The 8 April 1832 baptism of Samuel Herney (Hanney/Hennich) is easy to find in the church records of the Salem Reformed Church in Holmes County, Ohio, because it occurred within four weeks of his birth date, listed as 15 March 1832. But had the search been for the baptism of any of Samuel’s eleven siblings, born 1806 to 1827, the researcher may have met with disappointment. These children are listed on the same page as the 1832 baptism, along with parents Frederich and Catharine. For each, an entry indicates the date of baptism is not known. However, a full date of birth is given for every child and both parents (who were born in 1781 and 1788).
Most denominations have recorded marriages of their members, but exceptions include the early Puritans, who viewed marriage as a civil contract. Puritan marriages were performed by a civil magistrate and were not recorded in the church register. It is worth noting, however, that even when a denomination does not require marriage registration, the church clerk might consider the event important enough to enter into the conference minutes or some other record. Or, the bride’s new name might appear in the membership list. Other evidence of a marriage might be found in a minister’s private papers or diary.
In many areas, notably the southern states, church marriage records predate civil marriage records by decades. South Carolina, for example, did not require marriage licenses until 1911 or birth or death record marriages until 1 January 1915. In such situations, the church entry assumes even greater research significance. Brent Holcomb’s three volumes, South Carolina Marriages 1688–1799; South Carolina Marriages 1800–1820; and Supplement to South Carolina Marriages present marriage information from parish registers, Quaker meeting records, and miscellaneous court records.
Church marriage records vary widely in content. Some provide only the names of the bride and groom and the date. Others might list the names of both parents or identify witnesses. The attached image is a published transcription of records of the First (Congregational) Church in Huntington, Long Island, New York. In this illustration, the pastor included the previous residences of the couple.
Some ministers were more detailed in their record keeping. Entries penned by Reverend Nathaniel Braun of the Hebron Moravian Church in Dauphin (now Lebanon) County, Pennsylvania, exceed most recordings of the era by providing far more information than was normally entered.
- Dec. 27, 1801. William Weitzel (single) youngest son of the long departed Martin Weitzel, farmer, and Anna Maria, born in Fellberger, his wife, and Elizabeth Rudy, youngest daughter of the departed Abraham Rudy, and Catharine, his wife, born Huber, at present wife of George Glosbrenner, by Rev. National Braun. The stepfather, George Glossbrenner, and Sister Braun were witnesses.
Death and Burial Records
Death records found in church documents vary in length and detail. Many contain much more information than just the date of death or burial. Some are useful in locating an immigrant ancestor’s birthplace, as in the following from St. John’s Lutheran Church, Cabarrus County, North Carolina:
- Buried in Salisbury December 12, 1797 Henriette, daughter of Pastor Storch; born July 3, 1797; died December 11, 1797 of a cold; attained the age of 5 months and 7 days.
- Buried on January 13, 1798 at Buffalo Creek the son of Peter Guillmann and his wife Barbara, born Nov. 15, 1797; died of convulsions Jan. 12, 1798; and he was not baptized; attained the age of 8 weeks and 1 day.
- Buried at Coldwater March 12, 1798 Catharine, born Nov. 14, 1734 in the German part of Lorraine. Her father was George Schuffet. She married Michael Klein, who died in 1782. From this marriage there descended 14 children, of whom 7 are still living; moreover, 54 grandchildren and until now 8 great grand children. In the year she married John Schmidt. From this marriage there are no children. The deceased expired March 11, 1798 from a prostration. She attained an age of 63 years and 4 months, less 3 days.
- Buried at Buffalo Creek April 11, 1798 Mary Catharine, daughter of Michael Ritschi, born Dec. 20, 1797; died April 9, 1798 of convulsions. She attained an age of 3 months and 9 days.
- Buried at Buffalo Creek May 20, 1798 John, son of John Sassamann and his wife; born August 7, 1797; died from convulsions May 19, 1798; attained an age of 10 months and 8 days.
- Buried at Rocky River Church July 29, 1798 Jacob, son of Daniel Boger and his wife Elizabeth, born April 26, 1785; died July 27, 1798 of dysentery; attained the age of 13 years, 3 months, and 1 day.
- Buried at Coldwater Church August 26, 1798 Mary Elizabeth, born August 26, 1724 at Schweigern in Wuertemberg. Her father was Mathias Berringer. She married in 1750 Christian Bernhard; bore 10 children, of whom 5 are still living. She saw 26 grandchildren, of whom 5 are now dead. She died August 24, 1798 of hectic fever and attained an age of 74 years, less 2 days.
These detailed entries provide names, birth and death dates of the person, and burial information. In several cases, the decedent’s foreign birth place is identified. The recorder provides names and number of spouses, marriage dates, how many children the individual begat, and the cause of death. Side notes regarding the person’s character or “state of grace” enhance the record entry.
Although today few churches permit burials on their premises, this practice was not uncommon in earlier centuries. Immaculate Conception Churchyard Cemetery in Sutter Creek, Amador County, California, completely surrounds the Old Catholic church. Tombstones date from 1858 to 1982; most are from the 1860s, 1870s, and 1880s. Some of the inscriptions provide good detail. The marker for Luga Glavinovich gives the death date “30 Maggio 1874” (30 March), age “all eta di 46 anni” (46 years), and origin “Nativo di Pocie, Isola Brazza, Dalmazia.”
Because these burials often pre-date the keeping of official county records, a church burial book may be the only evidence of interment. When tombstones do not remain in church cemeteries, consult church officials to learn if an entry book was maintained for the burials. Such a book, or a recording in another church record, might predate the keeping of official county records, thus being the only evidence of the death and burial.
A related church death record that can provide a wealth of genealogical information is a transcript of the eulogy delivered by a minister at the funeral or memorial service. While eulogies tended to be designated for the wealthy or clergy, they were also given to more common folk, particularly those who were active in the church. Eulogies will carry dates and places and will likely include some family relationships. For example, a eulogy for “Mrs. Martha Robbins, the eldest daughter of Mr. Ahbel and Mrs. Abigail Wright, of Wethersfield [Connecticut]” showed that “she was born in that town, on the 24th of January, 1796” and adds the information that she was the mother of eight and includes dates for two of her children who died young.
Searches for eulogies should begin at the local church and extend to the central depository for the specific denomination. In addition, many college and public libraries, universities, and archives have significant historical or religious collections. Search their catalogues under “funeral sermons,” “memorial tributes,” and “obituaries” as well as “eulogies.” The American Antiquarian Society lists ten thousand eulogies in its online catalog.
Churches that conduct baptism of infants generally allow for a confirmation. A confirmation brings the confirmand into adult membership in the church. The age at confirmation varies within denominations. It can be as young as seven or restricted to “adults.” Most churches confirm between the ages of thirteen and eighteen. While most American Protestant denominations that practice confirmation list only the names of those confirmed and the date of the event, some may go beyond. German-American Lutheran and Reformed confirmation registers often include the date and place of baptism. Episcopalian clerks will include baptismal information in the confirmation records and file a report with the bishop. Because confirmation marks the person’s entry into full membership in the congregation, most entries include the age. If not, this usually can be determined by knowing the practices of the denomination.
Another record category that is common to most faiths is the membership list, often called a membership roll. Each denomination dictates exactly how the record is kept and who is responsible for its maintenance and updating. Some churches have special portions of the church record book reserved only for membership. Others may organize membership by family name, noting each family member and his or her status of affiliation.
Some membership rolls are simple lists. The more creative clerk may have separated the lists by gender, noting changes in a person’s name after marriage or adding significant dates (such as departure from the community or burial) after each entry. An entry can also reflect how the person became a member. Entries in the rolls of the First Presbyterian Church of Deerfield, Lenawee County, Michigan, 1853–1890, show that Mrs. Amelia M. Morse was “received into our Church by Certificate from the Congregational Church in Craftsbury, Vermont,” while Mrs. Miranda Canfield was received from the first Presbyterian Church in Kendall, Orleans Co., New York.
Membership data, no matter the format, is extremely important. From even the simple gender-separated lists, a researcher may find a family by matching males and females with the same surnames and the date they joined the church. The researcher can then take the names and date and conduct a further search of the church conference record. Such is the case in the records of the Congregational Methodist Church at Harmony (Pine Hill, Alabama). The church membership roll shows A. Holiway, male, October 1879, and Lula Holiway, female, October 1879. Searching conference records for this month and year produces the following record of 4 October 1879:
- The congregation met at the river near Wm. Traylors for the purpose of witnessing the ordinance of baptism and A. Holiway and his wife Lula was baptized by M. Prescott after which the church assembled for religious service.
It is worth noting that some church registers, particularly in the mid-nineteenth century, contain two membership lists, one marked “whites” and one labeled “colored.” A biographical sketch for Baptist minister Archibald A. Baldwin (1800–1864) includes this paragraph:
- “From 1852 to 1858 he was pastor of the Midlothian African Church, a church organized in 1846, with six white and fifty-four colored members....It is interesting to see the interest felt at this period in the religious welfare of the colored people. Nearly all the churches of the Middle District Association had colored members. For example in 1855, Powhatan Church had 270 colored members and Red Lane 101.”
Other Types of Records
The standard records just described are excellent resources, but there are other church-related materials worthy of examination. These include minutes, financial reports, and publications. All of these can be produced by a church or congregation or at a non-local level, such as a higher governing or related body, or by evangelical and missionary work.
Minutes and Administrative Records
Administration records can include details on the functioning of a denomination (as opposed to an individual church). The seven-volume Ecclesiastical Records State of New York transcribes selected Dutch Reformed church administrative records and correspondence, providing good information on the denomination and individuals who served in key positions.
The congregational business or church conference minutes offer an in-depth look into matters concerning the local church, such an ancestor’s work in the church, an individual’s monetary contributions, and matters of discipline. This following example comes from the Pisgah Cumberland Presbyterian Church Records in Gallatin County, Illinois, on 19 June 1842:
- Where as publick [sic] fame has declared Sister Magdelane Thompson guilty of some unchristian conduct in getting angry at a neighbour and using unchristian language resolved that J.S. Alexander and Robert S. Donaldson be appointed a committee to convers [sic] with said Sister and report to the session next Thirsday [sic] night.
The local churches of some denominations also kept detailed records of committee memberships and duties, family registers, and pew rentals. The Reverend Elias Nason, M.A., notes, “It appears that each member of the parish built his own pew in the meeting house, on a spot selected by himself, and that those who paid the heaviest taxes were entitled to the first choice. The names of the most fortunate were thus quaintly recorded by John Steel, the parish clerk”:
- Dunstable, October 21st, 1757, An acount [sic] of [the] Names of [the] Fifteen Higest [sic] Payers which was to Draw [the] Pew Ground as They were voted By [the] Second Parish in Dunstable first of all:
- Joseph Fletcher [the] 1st……..No 8
- Ebenr Parkhurst [the] 2d……..No 9
- Samuel Taylor [the] 3d………No 13
- Capt. John Cumings [the] 4th …..No 2
- John Steel [the] 5th …..No 15
- Abraham Kendall [the] 6th…..No 7
- Ebenr Proctor [the] 7th…..No 4
- Lt. John Kendall [the] 8th…….No 1
- Ens. John Swallow [the] 9th …..No 3
- Joseph Spaulding [the] 10th ….No 14
- Timothy Read [the] 11th …..No 10
- Ebenr Butterfield [the] 12th ….. No 12
- David Taylor [the] 13th …..No 5
- Josiah Blodgett [the] 14th …..No 6
- Joseph Taylor [the] 15th ….No 11.
- John Steel
- Ebenr Sherwin
Financial or Budget Reports
Financial records reflect a church’s decisions about raising and spending funds. The treasurer might record only the total amount given to the general fund. However, the members who contribute monies to a special cause or need are often listed along with the amount they gave.
Financial information may appear in church minutes. The session minutes of the Indiana Presbyterian Church of Knox County, Indiana, include the following notations about monies in 1835: “Feb 22, One dollar returned into treasury by David McCord; one dollar returned in treasury by M. S. Smith. March 23, Archld. Simpson returned .50 by self, M. S. Smith .50; March 24, May Smith returned .50.”
If a church extended ongoing financial aid to a needy family, the sums and payouts may appear in the financial accounts. Occasionally, repayments and donations noted are for other than cash and may give research clues. Carpentry work to repair a church roof, for example, may point to the occupation of the giver.
Local churches also publish information. The weekly church bulletin, which might double as the order of the weekly worship service, or a weekly newsletter may list who joined, who was ill, who died, who married, and who was buried. Such publications may also include
- A sermon that names those in need of special prayers.
- A tribute or memorial notice that gives more detail and family information than the secular newspaper obituary.
- Announcements of special publications, such as centennial anniversary booklets about the local church.
In addition to records created by the local congregation, there are documents produced at the area or state denominational level. Most denominations have at least two levels of organization above the local parish or church. The first tier above individual churches is generally administrative in nature and governs or oversees many churches in a particular region. Records at this level include minutes of general meetings or conferences and may have only passing reference to specific individuals.
The highest level of organization may be the national convention (Baptist), conference (Presbyterian), or congress, depending on the denomination. This governing body creates or maintains denominational records that deal with the overall functioning of the denomination and its history. Here will be found records of ministers, officials or laymen in leadership roles, and other significant persons. Records about ministers might include orders of ordinations, listings of pastoral service, and pulpit changes. There will usually be published and manuscript records containing tributes, biographies, and obituaries of clergy and lay leadership. These kinds of records are usually archived at the main centralized facility for that denomination but are sometimes found at university libraries.
Records of Religious Activities
The Religious Press
Most denominations at one time or another have produced newspapers such as the nineteenth-century Christian Leader, published in Utica, New York, for the Universalist Church or the American Friend, the Quaker-oriented publication. Other denominations were well-represented in ecumenical publications that covered vast areas and represented more than one denomination. The Christian Advocate titles (Western Christian Advocate, Southern Christian Advocate, Texas Christian Advocate, Canada Christian Advocate, and so forth) primarily published news about Methodist congregations, but entries for Baptists and Presbyterians appear often.
Researchers who think such literature contains only doctrinal statements and sermons will be pleasantly surprised. A wealth of detail lies within the pages of the religious press, as evidenced by this 1873 entry:
- Rauch: Fell peacefully asleep in Jesus, in Linn Co., Iowa, May 19th, 1873, Father Tobias Rauch, aged 80 years and 25 days . . . was born Vohringen on the Neckar, superior bailiwick Sulz, Wurtemberg. On 19 May 1873, died of old age, in Linn Co., Iowa. He and first wife were Lutherans, she being a widow with three children when they married. She died after a comparatively short duration, after bearing him three children, all living in Cleveland. After marrying a second time, came to America in 1833, settling in Liverpool, Columbiana Co., Ohio. Converted in Summit Co., Ohio. 1865 to Linn Co., Iowa, where joined Ottercreek Congregation. Survived by wife, 12 children, a number of grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Preceded in death by daughter, Sister Steinnage. 12 May 1873 funeral: Rev. W. Kolb preached in German from Luke 2:29, 31; Rev. F. Methfessel preached in English from III Tim. 4:7, 8, chosen by widow.
Because these papers had wide distribution (subscriptions to the Western Christian Advocate were commonly sold throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio), content was far-ranging. One common practice was to carry a notice to other newspapers to copy the text, i.e., “N.Y. Baptist Register will please copy.” This item was intended to disperse the information even more widely and can be a clue to the origin of the subject of the article.
The publishers ran the press as a business, much like the local newspaper. Ministers often sold subscriptions to supplement their retirement funds. Another way editors would subsidize the paper was to use the last page for advertisements, preferably paid for by advertisers in cash. Your ancestor may have advertised a business, written a personal item, campaigned for office, or been fondly remembered in the obituary or another personal entry column. Many of these periodicals were short-lived, but some issues may survive. A chart of some indexes and abstracts for religious newspapers appears in Some Nineteenth-Century Religious Newspapers Transcribed or Indexed.
Although circuit riding was not exclusive to the Methodists, it is they who seem most often associated with the topic. Writing of the Indiana frontier, James H. Madison describes these lone figures well. “Alone and on horseback, his saddlebag filled with a Bible, the Methodist Discipline, and a hymn book, he traveled hundreds of miles to preach and minister to pioneers scattered over his circuit. Efficiently and effectively he brought the church to the people. Usually possessed of frontier wisdom and practicality rather than a theology degree, the circuit rider was a welcome figure who understood the hardships of pioneer life and the joys of a new cleared field, a fatted hog, or a newborn baby.”
The practice of circuit riding endured into the twentieth century in some areas, Baptists and Presbyterians also rode the circuit, along with other denominations. These riders predated “stationed” preachers and the establishment of churches. Although not all were ordained (especially in the early years), most performed the services expected of an ordained minister. They would conduct ceremonies of baptism and marriage and, if their time of arrival permitted, burial. The ceremony might be recorded on a scrap of paper or in a journal maintained by the circuit rider. Whether notice would eventually be recorded at a county courthouse (and if so, which courthouse) depended on many variables, including the record-keeping abilities of the rider, the route he took, and whether monies had been entrusted to him to pay the recording fee at the courthouse. For these and other reasons, it is highly probable that a marriage conducted by a circuit rider, however legal in the eyes of the church, would not appear in the civil records of that county.
The Minutes of the Methodist Conferences Annually Held in America; From 1773 to 1813 lists riders and their admission into the church, the date of ordination, and tenure. There are some obituaries as well, some with excellent genealogical data. An attempt to gather information on circuit riders and on early “settled” pastors (up to 1920) is titled The Circuit Rider Database and is available online.
A search for information on services performed by early riders should include the National Union Catalogue of Manuscripts Collection. A search for the subject “Circuit Riders” revealed dozens of manuscripts, including a single volume belonging to Edward Page (1787–1867), a rider who served in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and New Jersey. His “Commonplace book, 1825–1876,” located at Rutgers University Libraries in New Brunswick, New Jersey, records marriages performed 1825–1838 and 1842–1864.
Missionaries and the Evangelical Movement
If your ancestor was a home or foreign missionary, you may find records, reports, and correspondence that provide excellent information. Because the mission movement was such an integral component of many denominations, the reports of the various mission stations were incorporated as a part of the larger annual denominational report. Not only were names and numbers reported, but often more personal or biographical information was shared about the interests and work of the missionaries. The health of missionaries or their family members may also be discussed. Additionally, news of births, marriages, or deaths in their families or in the communities in which they worked could be included.
These records as well as personal papers of the missionaries may be found in denominational or academic archives and libraries. Southern Baptists, for example, have a repository for resources related to foreign mission work at the International Mission Board (Richmond, Virginia) and for home missions at the North American Mission Board (Atlanta, Georgia) and the Southern Baptist Library and Archives (Nashville, Tennessee). The Congregational Library and Archives in Boston, Massachusetts, has an extensive collection of that denomination’s missionary records, which are described at http://www.14beacon.org. Additional depositories are listed in the denomination repository.
Missionaries were generally commissioned by individual denominations, but they were also assigned by other organizations, agencies, and cooperative interdenominational efforts as well. The records created by these organizations may also describe communities, churches and schools, and the people of the area. Preserving this material has resulted in microfilmed collections that open many doors. The following serve only as examples.
Papers of the American Home Missionary Society, 1816–1936 (385 reels and guide): The American Home Missionary Society was formed in 1826 by representatives of the Congregational, Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, and Associate Reformed churches. This Society was the largest organization of its kind in the United States throughout the nineteenth-century. Following the Civil War, the society sent missionaries south to establish schools for all children, especially the recently freed slaves. Their collected materials detail the work of the society and its missionaries, supplying information about the communities and their people. The original documents are housed at the Amistad Research Center, Dillard University, New Orleans, Louisiana. The full microfilm collection is also held by the Archives of the Billy Graham Center (see following) and other libraries and archives.
The American Missionary Association Papers, 1841–1878 (73 reels): The American Missionary Association was established in 1846 as an interdenominational missionary society devoted to abolitionist principles. The major support for the association came from Congregationalists, but it was also financially aided by Wesleyan Methodists, Free Presbyterians, and Freewill Baptists. In 1865 the association became the official agency of the Congregational churches for conducting educational work among the freedmen. Gradually, as support from other denominations declined, the association became an exclusively Congregational organization. These materials provide detailed records of schools established and the community reaction. The original records are housed at the Amistad Research Center, Dillard University, New Orleans, Louisiana.
The American Sunday School Union Papers: 1817–1915 (170 reels with guide): The American Sunday School Union began in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1817, as the Sunday and Adult School Union. It adopted its present name in 1824 when it was organized to promote the establishment of Sunday Schools and libraries in developing territories and states. A nondenominational organization, it drew members from the Baptist, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Moravian, Dutch Reformed, Congregational, Lutheran, German Reformed, and Friends churches. Reports and correspondence of the Union’s missionaries provide insights and information into their daily work, details about the communities (including some hand-drawn maps), and the people with whom they worked. Original papers are held in the Presbyterian Historical Society of Philadelphia and the microfilm collection is in the Archives of the Billy Graham Center (see following).
The Archives of the Billy Graham Center: The Billy Graham Center Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, is an archives of Christian history that is not linked to a particular denomination. The BGC Archives collects records on the activity of evangelism, specifically evangelism that occurs outside of churches. If an ancestor was a missionary, pastor, or Christian worker associated with one of the nondenominational ministries, this is where a search would begin. Resources include papers of and pertaining to the Africa Inland Mission, the China Inland Mission, the Women’s Union Missionary Society, the Mission Aviation Fellowship, Short Terms Abroad, the Moody Church, and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, among others. Within these collections could be correspondences, diaries, personal files, oral history interviews, or photographs about a particular missionary. In addition to papers of individuals, there are records of organizations involved in evangelism, including files of congresses and of conferences and interviews with those prominent in Christian work. Holdings information and research policies can be found online.
- Brent Holcomb, South Carolina Marriages 1688–1799 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1995); Brent Holcomb, South Carolina Marriages 1800–1820 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1995); Brent Holcomb, Supplement to South Carolina Marriages (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1995).
- USGenWeb Project, “Church: Marriages: Hebron Moravian Church, 1751–1811: Dauphin (now Lebanon) Co,” http://files.usgwarchives.net/pa/dauphin/church/hebr0001.txt.
- Translation of Records of St. John’s Evengelical Lutheran Church, at Buffalo Creek, Concord, Cabarrus County, North Carolina, microfilmed by the North Carolina Department of Archives and History, Division of Archives and Manuscripts, Raleigh, North Carolina.
- The Island of Brazza is located just off the Dalmation coast in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia. USGenWeb Project, “Immaculate Conception Churchyard Cemetery, Sutter Creek, Amador County, California,” http://files.usgwarchives.net/ca/amador/cemeteries/immaculate.txt, trans. Robert Tenuta, Illinois.
- Laura Prescott Duffy, “Using Eulogies in Your Research,” Ancestry Magazine 21 (March/April 2003), this article is also available online at Ancestry.com, http://learn.ancestry.com/LearnMore/Article.aspx?id=7236.
- Presbyterian Church of Deerfield, Michigan, FHL microfilm 955,794.
- Records of the Congregational Methodist Church at Harmony, Pine Hill, Randolph County, Alabama 1870–1897, microfilm MFC 1474, Samford University Library, Special Collection, Birmingham, Alabama.
- George Braxton Taylor, Virginia Baptist Ministers Third Series (Lynchburg, Va.: J. P. Bell Co., 1912), 42.
- Hugh Hastings, Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York (Albany: J. B. Lyons, state printer, 1901–16), 7.
- RootsWeb.com, Pisgah Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Gallatin County, Illinois, p. 22, http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ilgallat/new_chur.htm.
- Elias Nason, A History of the Town of Dunstable, Massachusetts (Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son, 1877), 96. Provided by Laura Prescott.
- Minutes of the Session of the Indiana (August 13, 1812–March 6, 1842) and Upper Indiana (06 March 1842–September 7, 1873), Presbyterian Churches Knox County, Indiana, typed transcript by Mary Aline Polk, Helen Polk, Mary R. Hribal, 1965, p. 20. Copy in the possession of Sandra Hargreaves Luebking, Illinois.
- Copies of the Christian Leader are at Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Cambridge, Mass.; the American Friend is at Earlham College, which has a necrology index at http://www.earlham.edu/library/content/friends/obituaries/index.html.
- Evangelical-Messenger 3 Jul 1873, microfilm, United Theological Seminary Center for the Evangelical United Brethren Hertage, Dayton, Ohio, #289.9305, p. 211, transcribed by Anne Dallas Budd, Ashland, Ohio, 2004.
- James H. Madison, The Indiana Way: A State History (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1986), 101.
- The Minutes of the Methodist Conferences Annually Held in America; From 1773 to 1813 Inclusive Volume The First (New York: Daniel Hitt and Thomas Ware Publishers, John C. Totten Printer, 1813; reprint ed., Swainsboro, Magnolia Press, 1983).
- National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections, http://lcweb.loc.gov/coll/nucmc. Item indexed under author: Edward Page, 1787–1867, input 19880819, current control no. DCLV88-A1126.
- Wayne D. Weber, “Genealogical Resources in the Archives of the Billy Graham Center, Parts 1 and 2,” FORUM 15 (Summer and Fall 2003) 2:1, 20–22; 3:9–12.