Native Americans of Texas

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This entry was originally written by Wendy Bebout Elliott, Ph.D. FUGA for Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources.

This article is part of
the Texas Family History Research series.
History of Texas
Texas Vital Records
Census Records for Texas
Background Sources for Texas
Texas Maps
Texas Land Records
Texas Probate Records
Texas Court Records
Texas Tax Records
Texas Cemetery Records
Texas Church Records
Texas Military Records
Texas Periodicals, Newspapers, and Manuscript Collections
Texas Archives, Libraries, and Societies
Texas Immigration
Texas Naturalization
Native Americans of Texas
Republic of Texas Settlers
African Americans of Texas
Hispanic Americans of Texas
Texas County Resources
Map of Texas


The most significant tribes represented in the state include Comanche, Kiowa, Arapaho, Crow, Wichita, Ute, and Creek. Other tribes in Texas include Arkokosa, Attacapa, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Karankawa, Nacogdoches, Nasoni, Neche, and Tonkawa. Most of those remaining in Texas in 1859 were forcibly removed to Indian Territory. During 1875 the surviving Comanche surrendered to federal forces. The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation remains in the state.

Records for Native Americans in Texas after 1845 are on file in the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs and in Bureau records in the National Archives. Those records in the Texas State Archives pertaining to Native Americans are usually insignificant for genealogical purposes. A better collection is housed by the Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division, Historical Bldg., Oklahoma City, OK 73105.

  • Brown, John Henry. Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas. 1978. Reprint. Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1988.
  • Sowell, Andrew J. Early Settlers and Indian Fighters of Southwest Texas: Facts Gathered from Survivors of Frontier Days. New York: Argosy, ca. 1964.
  • Wilbarger, J. W. Indian Depredations in Texas. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 1985.
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