Native Americans of Texas
This entry was originally written by Wendy Bebout Elliott, Ph.D. FUGA for Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources.
The most significant tribes represented in the state include Lipan Apache, Comanche, Kiowa, Arapaho, Crow, Wichita, Ute, and Creek. Other tribes in Texas include Arkokosa, Attacapa, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Karankawa, Nacogdoches, Nasoni, Neche, and Tonkawa. Most of those remaining in Texas in 1859 were forcibly removed to Indian Territory. During 1875 the surviving Comanche surrendered to federal forces. The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation remains in the state.
Records for Native Americans in Texas after 1845 are on file in the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs and in Bureau records in the National Archives. Those records in the Texas State Archives pertaining to Native Americans are usually insignificant for genealogical purposes. A better collection is housed by the Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division, Historical Bldg., Oklahoma City, OK 73105.
- Brown, John Henry. Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas. 1978. Reprint. Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1988.
- Sowell, Andrew J. Early Settlers and Indian Fighters of Southwest Texas: Facts Gathered from Survivors of Frontier Days. New York: Argosy, ca. 1964.
- Wilbarger, J. W. Indian Depredations in Texas. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 1985.