List of Useful Immigration References

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Using Immigration Records

This article is part of a series.
Overview of Immigration Research
Immigration Research Approaches
Major Settlements, Immigration, and Naturalization
American Sources for Documenting Immigrants
Using the Ellis Island Database
Foreign Sources for Immigration Records
List of Useful Immigration References
Topics

This article originally appeared in "Immigration Records" by Loretto Dennis Szucs, FUGA, Kory L. Meyerink, MLS, AG. FUGA, and Marian Smith in The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy

Contents

Introduction=

Once the national origins of an individual have been discovered, there is a great and ever-increasing assortment of background materials worth pursuing. A public library is a logical place to begin research. Most collections will include a basic history for any given ethnic group. Through computer networking, libraries can track down even the most obscure materials that will facilitate the search and add to the enjoyment of any research project. Many large public libraries and university and college libraries have special ethnic collections, as do some private libraries. The overwhelming amount of information currently available on ethnic groups and immigration in general makes it impossible to outline all of it in this chapter.

Immigration Background Sources

The following lists attempt to identify the most broadly available or useful histories, bibliographies, and immigrant lists. For a more complete discussion and a list of such sources, see the chapters on "Ethnic Sources" and "Immigration Sources" in Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records, edited by Kory L. Meyerink (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998).

Adamic, Louis. From Many Lands. New York: Harper and Bros., 1940.

Agueros, Jack, et al., eds. The Immigrant Experience. New York: Dial Press, 1971.

Allen, James Paul, and Eugene James Turner. We the People: An Atlas of America's Diversity. New York: McMillan, 1988.

Appel, John J. The New Immigration. New York: Pitman Publishers, 1971.

---. Immigrant Historical Societies in the USA. New York: Arno Press, 1980.

Archdeacon, Thomas J. Becoming American: An Ethnic History. New York: Free Press, 1983.

Auerbach, Frank L. Immigration Laws of the United States. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961.

Bahr, Howard M., and Bruce A. Chadwick, eds. American Ethnicity. Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1979.

Barton, Josef J. Peasants and Strangers. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Benton, Barbara. Ellis Island: A Pictorial History. New York: Facts on File, 1985.

Bernard, Richard. The Melting Pot and the Altar. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.

Bernardo, Stephanie. The Ethnic Almanac. Garden City, N.Y.: Dolphin Books, Doubleday, 1981.

Bigham, Barbara. "Colonists in Bondage: Indentured Servants in America." Early American Life 10 (1979): 30-33, 83-84.

Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Bogue, Donald J. The Population of the United States: Historical Trends and Future Projections. New York: Macmillan, 1985.

Bolino, August C. The Ellis Island Source Book. Washington, D.C.: Kensington Historical Press, 1985. In addition to a history of Ellis Island, this volume provides an exhaustive immigration bibliography.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: The Democratic Experience. New York: Random House, 1973.

Brye, David L. European Immigration and Ethnicity in the United States and Canada: A Historical Bibliography. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio Information Services, 1982.

Buenker, John D., Nicholas C. Burckel, and Rudolph J. Vecoli. Immigration and Ethnicity: A Guide to Information Sources. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1977.

Carpenter, Niles. Immigrants and Their Children 1920: A Study Based on Census Statistics Relative to the Foreign Born and the Native White of Foreign or Mixed Parentage. Census Monographs VII. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1927.

Cayton, Mary Kupies, Elliott J. Gorn, and Peter W. Williams, eds. Encyclopedia of American Social History. 3 vols. New York: Scribner, 1993.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Research Outline: Tracing Immigrant Origins. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Family History Library, 1992.

Coldham, Peter W. Emigrants in Chains: A Social History of Forced Emigration to the Americas of Felons, Destitute Children, Political and Religious Non-conformists, Vagabonds, Beggars and Other Undesirables, 1607-1776. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1992.

Cole, Donald B. Immigration City: Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1845-1921. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963.

Coleman, Terry. Going to America. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972.

Commager, Henry Steele, ed. Immigration and American History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1961.

Cordasco, Francesco, ed. A Bibliography of American Immigration History. Fairfield, N.J.: Augustus M. Kelly Publishers, 1978.


. The Immigrant Woman in North America: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected References. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985.
. The New American Immigration: Evolving Patterns of Legal and Illegal Emigration: A Bibliography of Selected References. New York: Garland, 1987.

Daniels, Roger. Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.

Dashefsky, Arnold, ed. Ethnic Identity in Society. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976.

Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M. Reimers. Ethnic Americans: A History of Immigration. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

Directory of Historical Organizations in the United States and Canada. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1994. This biennial lists addresses, telephone numbers, and other important information for state historical societies and agencies as well as those for local and specialized collections.

Eichholz, Alice, ed. Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources. 3rd ed. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004.

Eldridge, Grant J., ed. Encyclopedia of Associations: Regional, State, and Local Organizations. 4th ed. 5 vols. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1994.

Erickson, Charlotte, ed. Emigration from Europe, 1815-1914: Select Documents. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1976.

Ethnographic Bibliography of North America. 4th ed. 5 vols. Behavior Science Bibliographies. New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1975. Supplement (3 vols.) added in 1990.

Fermi, Laura. Illustrious Immigrants: The Intellectual Migration from Europe, 1930-1941. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Fleming, Thomas J. The Golden Door. New York: W. W. Horton, 1970.

Glazer, Nathan, and Daniel P. Moynihan, eds. Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Greeley, Andrew M., and Gregory Baum, eds. Ethnicity. New York: Seabury Press, 1977.

Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives. Rev. ed. Washington D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund board, 1991.

Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1951.


. The American People in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954.

---. Immigration as a Factor in American History. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1959.

-Hansen, Marcus L. The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860. New York: Harper, 1961.

Harkness, George E. The Church and the Immigrant. New York: Doran, 1921.

Heaps, Willard A. The Story of Ellis Island. New York: Seabury Press, 1967.

Heaton, Elizabeth Putnam. Steerage. New York: L. Heaton, 1919.

Herbert, Mirana C., and Barbara McNeil. Biography Genealogy Master Index. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1980-.

History of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980.

Hodges, Patrick, and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Hoglund, A. William. Immigrants and Their Children in the United States: A Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations, 1885-1982. New York: Garland, 1986.

Holli, Melvin G., and Peter d'A. Jones, eds. The Ethnic Frontier. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans Publishers, 1977.

Hutchinson, E. P. Legislative History of American Immigration Policy, 1798-1965. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1981.

Immigration and Naturalization Service. Foreign Versions, Variations, and Diminutives of English Names, Foreign Equivalents of United States Military and Civilian Titles. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970.

---. An Immigrant Nation: United States Regulation of Immigration, 1798-1991. U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991.

Johns, Stephanie Bernardo. The Ethnic Almanac. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981.

Jones, Maldwyn. American Immigration. New York: Holt, Rinehart. and Winston, 1960.


. Destination America. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976.

Kennedy, John F. A Nation of Immigrants. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

Kettner, James H. The Development of American Citizenship, 1607-1870. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.

Kraut, Alan M. The Huddled Masses: The Immigrant in American Society, 1880-1921. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1982.

Kurian, George Thomas. Datapedia of the United States 1790-2000: America Year by Year. Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press, 1994.

Lieberson, Stanley. Ethnic Patterns in American Cities. New York: Free Press, 1963.

Lind, Marilyn. Immigration, Migration and Settlement in the United States: A Genealogical Guidebook. Cloquet, Minn.: Linden Tree, 1985.

Luckingham, Bradford. "Benevolence in Emergent San Francisco: A Note on Immigrant Life in the Urban Far West." Southern California Quarterly 55 (1973): 431-44.

Makower, Joel, ed. The American History Source Book. New York: Prentice Hall, 1987.

Marden, Charles F., and Gladys Meyer. Minorities in American Society. 4th ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1973.

Meyerink, Kory L. "Immigration Sources." In Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records, edited by Kory L. Meyerink. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998.

Miller, Sally M. Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Miller, Wayne Charles. A Handbook of American Minorities. New York: New York University Press, 1976.

---, et al. A Comprehensive Bibliography for the Study of American Minorities. New York: New York University Press, 1976.

Montalto, Nicholas V. The International Institute Movement: A Guide to Records of Immigrant Society Agencies in the United States. St. Paul: Immigration History Research Center, 1978.

Moody, Suzanna, and Joel Wurl, eds. The Immigration History Research Center: A Guide to Collections. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Moreno, Barry. Encyclopedia of Ellis Island. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Morrison, Joan, and Charlotte Fox Zabusky. American Mosaic: The Immigrant Experience in the Words of Those Who Lived It. 2nd ed. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press, 1993.

National Historical Publications and Records Commission. Directory of Archives and Manuscript Repositories in the United States. 3rd ed. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1990.

Neagles, James C. "Immigrant Ancestors." In The Library of Congress: A Guide to Genealogical and Historical Research. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1990.

Novotny, Ann. Strangers at the Door. Riverside, Conn.: Chatham Press, 1971.

Nugent, Walter. Crossings: The Great Transatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Periodical Source Index (PERSI). Fort Wayne, Ind.: Allen County Public Library Genealogy Department, 1987-.

Pfeiffer, Laura Szucs. Hidden Sources: Family History in Unlikely Places. Orem, Utah: Ancestry, 2000.

Powell, Sumner Chilton. Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965.

Reimers, David M. Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.


. The Immigrant Experience. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989.

Risch, Erna. "Immigrant Aid Societies Before 1820." Pennsylvania History 3 (January 1936): 15-32.

Rosen, Philip. The Neglected Dimension: Ethnicity in American Life. South Bend, Ind.: Notre Dame Press, 1980.

Scott, Franklin D. The Peopling of America: Perspectives on Immigration. Washington, D.C.: American Historical Society Association, 1972.

Silinonte, Joseph M. Bishop Loughlin's Dispensations, Diocese of Brooklyn, 1859-1866. Brooklyn, N.Y.: the author, 1996.

Slocum, Robert C. Biographical Dictionaries and Related Works. 2 vols. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1986.

Smith, Jessie C., ed. Ethnic Genealogy: A Research Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Smith, Warren B. White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina. Danielsville, Ga.: Heritage Papers, 1972.

Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History. New York: Basic Books, 1981.

Szucs, Loretto Dennis. "Ethnic Sources." In Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records, edited by Kory L. Meyerink. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998.


. They Became Americans. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998.
, and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Archives: A Guide to the National Archives Field Branches. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1988.

Taylor, Philip. The Distant Magnet: European Emigration to the U.S.A. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

Thernstrom, Stephan. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1980.

Tift, Wilton, and Thomas Dunne. Ellis Island. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

Vecoli, Rudolph J., and Suzanne M. Sinke, eds. A Century of European Migrations, 1830-1930. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Wasserman, Paul, and Alice E. Kennington. Ethnic Information Sources of the United States: A Guide to Organizations, Agencies, Foundations, Institutions, Media, Commercial and Trade Bodies, Government Programs, Research Institutes, Libraries and Museums, Religious Organizations, Banking Firms, Festivals and Fairs, Travel and Tourist Offices, Airlines and Ship lines, Bookdealers and Publishers' Representatives, and Books, Pamphlets, and Audiovisuals on Specific Ethnic Groups. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1983.

Wittke, Carl F. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant. Cleveland: Western Reserve University Press, 1964.

Wynar, Lubomyr R. Encyclopedic Directory of Ethnic Organizations in the United States. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1976.


, and Anna T. Wynar. The Encyclopedic Directory of Ethnic Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1976.

Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia, and Marjorie Lightman. Ellis Island and the Peopling of America: The Official Guide. New York: New York Press, 1997.

Published Passenger and Emigration Lists and Sources for Locating Ships

Anuta, Michael J. Ships of Our Ancestors. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1993.

Baca, Leo. Czech Immigration Passenger Lists. 4 vols. Richardson, Tex.: the compiler, 1983-91.

Boyer, Carl, III. Ship Passenger Lists. 4 vols. Newhall, Calif.: 1977-80.

Burgert, Annette K. Eighteenth-Century Emigrants From German-Speaking Lands to North America. Breinigsville, Pa.: Pennsylvania German Society, 1983-.

Cassady, Michael. New York Passenger Arrivals, 1849-1868. Papillion, Nebr.: Nimmo, 1983.

Coldham, Peter Wilson. The Complete Book of Bonded Passengers to America. 9 vols. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983-85.

Colletta, John P. They Came in Ships: A Guide to Finding Your Immigrant Ancestor's Arrival Record. Rev. 3rd ed. Orem, Utah: Ancestry, 2002.

Cutler, Carl C. Queens of the Western Ocean: The Story of America's Mail and Passenger Sailing Lines. Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute, 1961.

Ferguson, Laraine K. "Hamburg, Germany, Gateway to Ancestral Home." German Genealogical Digest 2, no. 1 (first quarter 1986): 10-14.

Filby, P. William. Passenger and Immigration Lists Bibliography, 1538-1900: Being a Guide to Published Lists of Arrivals in the United States and Canada. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1988.

---, and Mary K. Meyer, eds. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index: A Guide to Published Arrival Records of More Than 1,775,000 Passengers Who Came to the New World Between the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981. Supplements 1982-.


, and Mary K. Meyer, eds. Passenger and Immigration Lists of Arrivals in the United States and Canada in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 3 vols. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981. Supplements 1982-.

Filby, P. William, Mary K. Meyer, and Dorothy M. Lower. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981- (including supplements).

-Glazier, Ira A., and Michael Tepper, eds. The Famine Immigrants: Lists of Irish Immigrants Arriving at U.S. Ports 1850-1855. 7 vols. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983-87.


. Italians to America: Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports, 1880-1899. 2 vols. to date. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1992-.

---, and P. William Filby, eds. Germans to America: Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports, 1850-1855. 28 vols. to date. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1988-.

-Guillet, Edwin C. The Great Migration: The Atlantic Crossing by Sailing Ship Since 1770. Rev. ed. Toronto: University Press, 1963.

Hall, Charles M. Antwerp Emigration Index. Salt Lake City: Heritage International, 1986.

Haury, David A., ed. Index to Mennonite Immigrants on U.S. Passenger Lists, 1872-1904. North Newton, Kans.: Mennonite Library and Archives, 1986.

Immigration Information Bureau. Morton Allen Directory of European Passenger Steamship Arrivals. 1931; reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1993.

Jones, Hank Z, Jr. More Palatine Families: Some Immigrants to the Middle Colonies, 1717-1776, and Their European Origins. San Diego: the author, 1991.

Kludas, Arnold. Great Passenger Ships of the World. Translated by Charles Hodges. 6 vols. Cambridge, England: Patrick Stephens, 1975-86.

Lancour, Harold. Bibliography of Passenger Lists. New York: New York Public Library, 1937.

Mathias, P., and A. W. H. Pearsall. Shipping: A Survey of Historical Records. Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles, 1980.

McManus, J. Comal County, Texas, and New Braunfels, Texas German Immigrant Ships, 1845-1846. St. Louis: F. T. Ingmire, 1985.

Mitchell, Brian, comp. Irish Passenger Lists 1847-1871. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988.

The Morton Allan Directory of European Passenger Steamship Arrivals. Immigrant Information Bureau, 1931.

National Archives Trust Fund Board. Immigrant and Passenger Arrivals: A Select Catalog of National Archives Publications. Revised. Washington, D.C., 1992.

Olsson, Nils William. Swedish Passenger Arrivals in New York, 1820-1850. Chicago: Swedish Pioneer Historical Society, 1967.

Owen, Robert Edward, ed. Luxemburgers in the New World. 2 vols. Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg: Editions Reliures Schortgen, 1987.

"Passenger Arrivals at Salem and Beverly, Massachusetts, 1798-1800." New England Historical Genealogical Register 106 (1952): 203-9.

Potter, Constance. "St. Albans Passenger Arrival Records." Prologue 22 (Spring 1990): 90-93.

Prins, Edward. Dutch and German Ships. Holland, Mich.: the compiler, 1972.

Rasmussen, Louis J. San Francisco Ship Passenger Lists. 4 vols. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1978.

Reider, Milton P., and Norma Gaudet Rieder, eds. New Orleans Ship Lists. 2 vols. Metairie, La., 1966-68.

Rockett, Charles Whitlock. Some Shipboard Passengers of Captain John Rockett (1828-1841). Mission Viejo, Calif.: the compiler, 1983.

Schenk, Trudy, Ruth Froelke, and Inge Bork. The Wuerttemberg Emigration Index. 8 vols. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1988-2002.

Schrader-Muggenthaler, Cornelia. Alsace Emigration Book. 2 vols. Apollo, Pa.: Closson Press, 1989-91.


. Baden Emigration Book. Apollo, Pa.: Closson Press, 1992.

Ships Passenger Lists, Port of Galveston, Texas, 1846-1871. Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1984.

Smith, Clifford Neal. Reconstructed Passenger Lists for 1850: Hamburg to Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, and the United States. 4 vols. McNeal, Ariz.: Westland Publications, 1980.

Smith, Eugene W. Passenger Ships of the World, Past and Present. Boston: George H. Dean, 1978.

Steuart, Bradley W. Passenger Ships Arriving in New York Harbor (1820-1850). Bountiful, Utah: Precision Indexing, 1991.

Strassburger, Ralph Beaver, comp., and William John Hinke, ed. Pennsylvania German Pioneers: A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals in the Port of Philadelphia from 1727 to 1808. 3 vols. Norristown, Pa.: Pennsylvania German Society, 1934.

Sweiringa, Robert P., comp. Dutch Immigrants in U.S. Ship Passenger Manifests, 1820-1880: An Alphabetical Listing by Household Heads and Independent Persons. 2 vols. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1983.

-Tepper, Michael, ed. Emigrants to Pennsylvania, 1641-1819: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists from Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1978.


. Immigrants to the Middle Colonies. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1978.
. New World Immigrants: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists from Periodical Literature. 2 vols. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988.
. Passenger Arrivals at the Port of Baltimore, 1820-1834, From Customs Passenger Lists. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1982.
. Passenger Arrivals at the Port of Philadelphia, 1800-1819: The Philadelphia Baggage Lists. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1986.

---. American Passenger Arrival Records: A Guide to the Records of Immigrants Arriving at American Ports by Sail and Steam. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1993.

Wolfe, Richard. Bibliography of Passenger Lists. New York: New York Public Library, 1963.

Yoder, Don, ed. Pennsylvania German Immigrants, 1709-1786: Lists Consolidated from Yearbooks of the Pennsylvania German Folklore Society. 1984; reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1989.

Zimmerman, Gary J., and Marion Wolfert. German Immigrants: Lists of Passengers Bound From Bremen to New York. 3 vols. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988.

Naturalization

Bockstruck, Lloyd deWitt. Denizations and Naturalizations in the British Colonies in America, 1607-1775. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2005.

Filby, P. William. Philadelphia Naturalization Records. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1982.

Green, Linda R. "Citizenship and Naturalization in Colonial America from Pre-Revolutionary Times to the United States Constitution." Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly 24 (Fall 1992): 152-58.

Franklin, Frank George. The Legislative History of Naturalization in the United States. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969.

Holcomb, Brent H. South Carolina Naturalizations, 1783-1850. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1985.

Journals of Congress, II, 16 January 1777.

National Archives Trust Fund Board. Index to Naturalization Petitions of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, 1865-1957. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1991.

Newman, John J. American Naturalization Records, 1790-1990: What They Are and How to Use Them. 2nd ed. Bountiful, Utah: Heritage Quest, 1998.

Schaefer, Christina K. Guide to Naturalization Records of the United States. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997.

Scott, Kenneth. Early New York Naturalizations, 1790-1840. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1981.

Soundex Index to Naturalization Petitions for the United States District and Circuit Courts, Northern District of Illinois, and Immigration and Naturalization Service District 9, 1840-1950. National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1991.

Szucs, Loretto Dennis. They Became Americans. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998.

---, and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Archives: A Guide to the National Archives Field Branches. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1988.

Wolfe, Richard J. "The Colonial Naturalization Act of 1740; With a List of Persons Naturalized in New York Colony, 1740-1769." New York Genealogical and Biographical Record 94 (1963): 132-47.

Wyand, Jeffrey A., and Florence L. Wyand. Colonial Maryland Naturalizations. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1986.

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