List of Useful Business, Institution, and Organization Resources
This article originally appeared in "Business, Institution, and Organization Records" by Kay Haviland Freilich, CG, CGL, and Ann Carter Fleming, CG, CGL in The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy
- 1 Business Research and Finding Aids
- 2 Business Directories
- 3 Apprentices
- 4 Associations
- 5 Government
- 6 Hospitals and Medical
- 7 Institutions
- 8 Insurance
- 9 Morticians
- 10 Organizations
- 11 Orphanages and Orphan Train
- 12 Overseers of the Poor and Almshouses
- 13 Prisons
- 14 Railroad
- 15 Schools
- 16 Typical Guides to Manuscript Collections
- 17 Sample Corporate Histories
- 18 Selected Vocational Collective Biographies
- 19 See Also
- 20 External Links
Business Research and Finding Aids
Ash, Lee. Subject Collections: A Guide to Special Book Collections and Subject Emphasis. 7th ed. Providence, N.J.: R. R. Bowker Co., 1993.
Benedict, Karen M. A Select Bibliography on Business Archives and Records Management. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1981.
Bolino, August E. The Ellis Island Source Book. Washington, D.C.: Kensington Historical Press, 1985.
Brownstone, David M., and Gordon Carruth. Where to Find Business Information. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979.
Cochran, Thomas Childs. 200 Years of American Business. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Corporate Names Index, 1959–1984. Alexandria, Va.: Chadwyck-Healey, 1994.
Craumer, Lucille V., ed. Business Periodicals Index. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., annual since 1958.
Daniels, Lorna M. Business Information Sources. 3rd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Demaree, Albert L. The American Agricultural Press, 1819–1860. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941.
Directory: Juvenile and Adult Correctional Departments, Institutions, Agencies and Paroling Authorities. Laurel, Md.: American Correctional Association, 1995.
Dun and Bradstreet. America’s Corporate Families. Skokie, Ill.: National Register Publishing Co., annual.
Evans, George H., Jr. Business Incorporations in the United States, 1800–1943. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1948.
Historical Statistics of the United States Colonial Times to 1970. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1975.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell. “Evaluation and Preservation of Business Archives.” American Archivist 1 (October 1938): 171–85.
Larson, Henrietta. Guide to Business History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1948.
Levis, Gail Ann Hodges. “My Papa Was a Woodman.” FORUM 15 (Fall 2003).
Manuscripts of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: the society, n.d.
Meckler, Alan M., and Ruth McMullin, comps. and eds. Oral History Collection. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1975.
Meyers, E. L. (Roy), comp. Foster-Pettygrove Store Lists. The Barlow Toll Road 1846–1919: The Story of Two Men from Fort Deposit. They Called It Jack-Knife: History of Eagle Creek Community and School District Number 17. Portland: Genealogical Forum of Oregon, 1991.
Miljat, Leslie Elizabeth. Admission Applications, 1867–1872. National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Milwaukee Wisconsin. Wauwatosa, Wis.: L. E. Miljat, 1991.
Missoula City Directory. Missoula: R. L. Polk and Co., 1922.
Moskowitz, Milton, Michael Katz, and Robert Levering, eds. Everybody’s Business: A Field Guide to the 400 Leading Companies in America. New York: Doubleday/Currency, 1990.
Robert D. Fisher Manual of Valuable and Worthless Securities. New York: R. D. Fisher, serial.
Roy, William G. “Collecting Data on American Business Officials in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century.” Historical Methods 15 (Fall 1982): 143–51.
Saretsky, Gary D. “North American Business Archives: Results of a Survey.” American Archivist 40 (October 1977): 413–20.
Schmidt, Alvin J. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Institutions: Fraternal Institutions. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.
Slocum, Robert B. Biographical Dictionaries and Related Works. 2 vols. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1986.
Smith, Albert E., Jr. The Grand Army of the Republic and Kindred Societies: A Guide to Resources in the General Collections of the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 2001.
Stryker-Rodda, Kenn. “The Janeway Account Books, 1735–1746.” Genealogical Magazine of New Jersey 33 (January–April 1958).
U.S. Bureau of the Census. “Labor Force and Employment by Industry: 1800–1960.” In Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. Part 1, series D. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975.
Directories in Print. Detroit: Gale Research Co., annual. Directory of Business Archives in the United States and Canada. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1975.
Directory of Corporate Affiliations. Skokie, Ill.: National Register Publishing Co., annual since 1967.
Dun’s Marketing Services. (Dun’s) Million Dollar Directory. New York: Dun and Bradstreet Corp., annual since 1963.
Fortune Magazine. Fortune Double 500 Directory. Trenton, N.J.: Fortune Magazine, annual since 1970.
Hedblaid, Alan, ed. Directories in Print. 23rd ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2003. Information Please Almanac, Atlas and Yearbook. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1947–, annual.
Kruzas, Anthony T., Kay Gill, and Donald Boyden, eds. Business Organizations, Agencies, and Publications Directory: Organizations, Agencies, and Institutions. Detroit: Gale Group, 1986.
Lewingson, Paul and Morris Rieger. “Labor Union Records in the United States.” American Archivist 25 (January 1962).
Mann, Conklin. “The Family of Conchelyne, etc. in America.” American Genealogist 21 (1944–1945).
———. “The Family of Conchelyne, etc. in America.” American Genealogist 22 (1945–1946).
Martindale-Hubble Law Directory. Summit, N.J.: Martindale-Hubble, annual.
National Historical Publications and Records Commission. Directory of Archives and Manuscript Repositories in the United States. Phoenix: Uryx Press, 1988.
Neible, George W. “Account of Servants Bound and Assigned Before James Hamilton, Mayor of Philadelphia.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 32 (October 1908).
Nelso, William, ed. Documents Relating to Colonial History of New Jersey. 1st series, vol. 12. Patterson, N.J.: Press Printing and Publishing Co., 1895.
Nordland, Rod. Names and Numbers: A Journalist’s Guide to the Most Needed Information Sources and Contacts. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978.
Scott, Kenneth. “Some Huntington, Long Island Residents, 1763–1779.” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 62 (September 1974).
Spear Dorothea N. Bibliography of American Directories Through 1860. Worcestor, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1961.
Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors and Executives. New York: Standard and Poor’s, annual since 1928.
Vandenberge, Peter N. Historical Directory of the Reformed Church of America, 1625–1965. New Brunswick, N.J.: Reformed Church in America, 1966.
Ward, Baldwin H., ed. Ward’s Business Directory of U.S. Private and Public Companies. Petaluma, Calif.: Baldwin H. Ward Publications, annual.
———, ed. Ward’s Directory of 55,000 Largest Corporations. Petaluma, Calif.: Baldwin H. Ward Publications, annual.
Apprenticeship Past and Present. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1991.
Coldham, Peter Wilson. Child Apprentices in America, from Christ’s Hospital, London, 1617–1778. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1990.
Cutten, George Berton. The Silversmiths of Virginia from 1694 to 1850. Richmond: Diete Press, 1952.
Gill, Harold B., Jr. Apprentices of Virginia, 1623–1800. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1997.
Herrick, Cheesman A. White Servitude in Pennsylvania. 1926. Reprint, New York: Negro University Press, 1969.
Kingsbury, Susan Myra, ed. The Records of the Virginia Company of London. 4 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1938.
Miller, Alan N. Middle Tennessee’s Forgotten Children: Apprentices from 1784 to 1902. Baltimore: Clearfield, 2004.
Pennsylvania German Society. Record of Indentures of Individuals Bound Out as Apprentices, etc., [in] Philadelphia . . . 1771 to 1773. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1973.
Ritter, Kathy. Apprentices of Connecticut, 1637–1900. Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1986.
Salinger, Sharon V. To Serve Well and Faithfully: Labor and Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Encyclopedia of Associations. Detroit: Gale Research Co., biennial.
Naanes, Ted, and Loretto Szucs. “Dead Men Do Tell Tales.” Ancestry Magazine 12, no. 2 (March–April 1994): 6.
Roebuck, Haywood. “North Carolina Colonial Coroners’ Inquests, 1738–75.” North Carolina Genealogical Society Journal 1 (1975): 11–37.
Horle, Craig W., et al. Lawmaking and Legislators in Pennsylvania: A Biographical Dictionary 2 vols, 1682–1709; 1710–1756. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991, 1997.
Prechtel-Kluskens, Claire. “Documenting the Career of Federal Employees.” Prologue 26 (Fall 1994): 180–85.
Hospitals and Medical
American College of Surgeons Directory. Chicago: R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 1971. Lists open and closed medical and dental schools plus the current list of surgeons.
Clay, Robert Y. “Patients in the Hospital at Williamsburg, 1800–37.” Virginia Genealogist 24 (1980): 23–28, 90–94.
Collard, J. Boyd. Hospitals and Medical Doctors in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma. Lawton, Okla.: the author, 1994.
Directory of Deceased American Physicians, 1804–1929. 2 vols. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1992.
Gilliam, Charles Edgar. “Mount Malado.” Tyler’s Quarterly 20 (1938–39): 138–42, 250. Virginia’s earliest hospital.
New York Down-State Medical Center. History of Long Island College Hospital: Alumni Association Highlights, 1880–1955, and Biographies of Graduates, 1900–1955. New York: New York Alumni Association, 1961.
Johns, Frank S., and Anne Page. “Chimborazo Hospital and J. B. McCaw, Surgeon in Chief.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 62 (1954): 190–200. An excellent description of revolutionary war hospital records with examples and locations.
Jordan, John W. “Military Hospital at Bethlehem and Lititz during the Revolution.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 20 (1896): 137–57. An undocumented account with patient lists.
Kelner, Joseph. “Examination of Hospital Records.” Case and Comment 84 (1979): 51–54. Describes access to modern records.
Larrabee, Eric. The Benevolent and Necessary Institution: New York Hospital, 1771–1971. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.
Uppedegraff, Marie. The Story of Stamford Hospital, 1896–1971. Stamford, Conn.: Stamford Hospital, 1971.
Williams, William H. “The Industrious Poor and the Founding of the Pennsylvania Hospital.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 97 (1973): 431–43. Established 1751.
Clough, Shepard B. A Century of American Life Insurance: A History of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, 1843–1943. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946.
Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Institutions. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977–86. Separate volumes deal with labor unions, political parties and government agencies, research institutes and learned societies, farmers organizations, colleges and universities, and foundations.
Larson, David R., ed. Guide to Manuscripts Collections and Institutional Records in Ohio. N.p.: Society of Ohio Archivists, 1974.
Preuss, Arthur, A Dictionary of Secret and Other Societies, St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1924. Reprint, Gale Research Co., 1966.
Clough, Shepard B. A Century of American Life Insurance: A History of the Mutual Life Company of New York, 1843–1943. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946.
Galles, Duane. “Using Life Insurance Policies in Genealogical Research.” Genealogical Journal 20 (1992): 156–71.
Larkin, Harold F. “Retention of Life Insurance Records.” American Archivist 5 (April 1942): 93–99.
The American Blue Book of Funeral Directors. New York: Kates-Boylston Publications, biennial since 1929.
Elder, Charlotte DeVolt. “New Englanders in the Mortuary Records of Savannah, Georgia.” New England Historic and Genealogical Register 125 (1971): 28–44. Covers 1803–22.
The National Directory of Morticians. Youngstown, Ohio: National Directory of Morticians, 1950–, irregular.
National Yellow Book of Funeral Directors. Youngstown, Ohio: Nomis Publications, annual.
“Undertakers Records.” Maryland Genealogical Bulletin 20 (1979); 21 (1980).
Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies in the United States and Canada. 14th ed. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1990.
Fraternal Directory. San Francisco: Bancroft Co., 1889.
Lewinson, Paul, and Morris Rieger. “Labor Union Records in the United States.” American Archivist 25 (January 1962): 39–57.
Whalen, William J. Handbook of Secret Organizations. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1966.
Wynar, Lubomyr R. Encyclopedia Directory of Ethnic Organizations in the United States. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1975.
Orphanages and Orphan Train
Allen, Desmond Walls. “Paupers at the Turn of the Century.” Professional Genealogists of Arkansas, Inc. Newsletter 6, no. 6 (November 1993).
Charlotte County (Florida) Genealogical Society. “Orphan Trains.” Geneagram 24, no. 1 (June 1991): 44–46.
Coble, Janet. “They Came to Our Town: A Story of Orphan Train Children.” Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly 24, no. 2 (Summer 1992): 102–4.
Fink, Arthur E. “Changing Philosophies and Practices in North Carolina Orphanages.” North Carolina Historical Review 48 (1971).
Gilbert, Meredith. “Orphan Trains.” Polish Genealogical Society of Texas News 10, no. 3 (Fall 1993): 26–28.
Greenwood, Peggy Thomson. “City’s House of Refuge; Orphanages 1827–1870” and “Orphanages (Part 2) 1870–1900.” St. Louis Genealogical Quarterly 24, no. 1 (Fall 1990).
Harland, Thomas. “Of Franklin, Whitfield, and the Orphans.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 29 (1945): 201–16. Bethesda Orphanage in Georgia.
Hasci, Timothy A. Second Home: Orphan Asylums and Poor Families in America. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Illinois State Genealogical Society. Children of Orphan Trains from NY to IL, and Beyond. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois State Genealogical Society, 1995.
Johnson, Mary Ellen, comp. Orphan Train Riders: Their Own Stories. Baltimore: Gateway Press, 1992.
Jones, Newton B. “The Charleston Orphan House, 1860–1976.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 62 (1961): 203–14. Organized 1790.
Langson, Miriam Z. Children West: A History of the Placing-out System of the New York Children’s Aid Society, 1853–1896. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1964. Describes the records of one of the most important social institutions in New York City.
O’Connor, Stephen. Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
Paul, Ellen, ed. The Adoption Directory. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 1995.
Pickett, Robert S. House of Refuge: Origins of Juvenile Reform in New York State, 1815–1857. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1969. Established 1825.
Rothman, David J. The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1971.
Speare, Jean E., and Dorothy Paul. Admission Record Indianapolis Asylum for Friendless Colored Children, 1871–1900. Indianapolis: Family History and Genealogy Section, Indiana Historical Society, 1978.
Teeters, Negley K. “The Early Days of the Philadelphia House of Refuge.” Pennsylvania History 27 (1960): 165–87. Established in 1828. Based on minutes of the Board of Inspectors, journals, and daybooks of the house.
Overseers of the Poor and Almshouses
Benton, Josiah Henry. Warning Out in New England. 1911. Reprint, Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, 1992.
“Chautauqua County Home and Infirmary. Poor House for Chautauqua County, New York.” FORUM 3, no. 4 (Fall 1992). This article identifies journals being abstracted by the Chautauqua County Genealogical Society, P.O. Box 404, Fredonia, NY 14063.
Hapner, Phyllis, and Judy Graven. Almshouse Register for Shelby County, Illinois. Typescript. N.p., 1985.
Lainhart, Ann S. “Records of the Poor in Pre-Twentieth-Century New England.” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 146 (January 1992): 80–85.
———. “Cambridge, Massachusetts, Notifications and Warnings Out (1788 to 1797).” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 144 (July 1990): 215.
———. “Weston Cautions, 1757–1803.” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 144 (July 1990): 215.
Lucas County Infirmary Register, Vol. I, 1855–1882. Book 2, Feb 1868–Mar 1882. Toledo, Ohio: Lucas County Chapter—OGS, 1993. More than 3,500 entries which include births, deaths, indentures, and adoptions of minor children.
McLaird, Lee N. “Haven for Those in Need.” Archival Chronicle 14, no. 1 (March 1995): 1–2.
Sangamon County Almshouse, Buffalo, Illinois: Inmate Record, Sangamon County Poor Farm. 3 vols. Springfield, Ill.: Sangamon County Genealogical Society, 1993.
Warren, Paula Stuart, and James W. Warren. Ramsey County Minnesota Relief Records, 1862–1868. St. Paul: Warren Research and Publishing, 1990.
Bumgarner, Herb. Jail Register Index, Clackamas County, Oregon, From 1892 to 1925 Except For Years 1903 thru 1906. Clackamas County, Ore.: Clackamas County Family History Society, 1991.
Carleton, Mark T. Politics and Punishment: The History of the Louisiana State Penal System. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971.
Carter, Kent. “The Hanging Judge’s Records.” The Record (newsletter of the National Archives and Records Administration) 1, no. 1 (September 1994).
Kidd, Julie. “Oregon State Penitentiary.” Bulletin of the Genealogical Forum of Oregon, Inc. 45, no. 2 (December 1995): 75–78. Lists of prisoners extracted from Report of the Superintendent Oregon State Penitentiary. Salem, Ore.: W. A. McPherson, State Printer, 1870.
Lewis, Orland F. The Development of American Prisons and Prison Customs, 1776–1845. 1922. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1962.
New York State Temporary State Committee of Investigation. County Jails and Penitentiaries in New York State. Albany, 1966.
Phelps, Richard H. A History of Newgate [Prison] of Connecticut. New York: Arno Press, 1969.
Shepard, William. “Records From Old Jail at Cumberland Courthouse, Virginia.” William and Mary Quarterly, 2nd Series, 12 (1932): 39–40. Records dated 1782 to 1786.
Speer, Lonnie R. Portals to Hell: Military Prisons of the Civil War.Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 1997.
Teeters, Negley K. “The Early Days of the Eastern State Penitentiary at Philadelphia.” Pennsylvania History 16 (1949): 261–302.
Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America. New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Co., irregular since 1885. Later editions titled Who’s Who in Railroading in North America.
Busbey, T. A. Biographical Directory of Railway Officials of America. Chicago: Railway Age, 1901.
Cochran, Thomas. Railroad Leaders, 1845–1890: The Business Mind in Action. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1953.
Elliott, Wendy. “Railroad Records for Genealogical Research.” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 75 (December 1987): 271–77.
Moody’s Transportation Manual. New York: Moody’s, 2000.
Ambler, Charles H. “Poor Relief Education, 1818–1847.” West Virginia History 3 (1941–42): 285–304. Based on school records transferred from the courthouse in Kanawha County to West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Andrews, Edward D. “The County Grammar Schools and Academies of Vermont.” Vermont Historical Society Proceedings (September 1936): 174ff.
Baird’s Manual of American College Fraternities. 20th ed. Menasha, Wis.: Baird’s Manual Foundation, 1991.
Finkelstein, Barbara J. “Schooling and Schoolteachers: Selected Bibliography of Autobiographies in the Nineteenth Century.” History of Education Quarterly 14 (1974): 293–300. An important bibliography.
Fuller, Wayne E. The Old Country School: The Story of Rural Education in the Middle West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Includes a description of the records.
Gersman, Elinor M. “A Bibliography for Historians of Education: Historical Perspectives on the Educational Experience in the United States.” History of Education Quarterly 14 (1974): 279–92.
Hogue, Arthur R. “The Record of an Indian School District, 1837–1844.” Indian Magazine of History 48 (1952): 185–92.
Index to Georgia Poor-School and Academy Records, 1826–1850. Atlanta: R. J. Taylor Jr. Foundation, 1980. Records include lists of children with names, ages, school attendance, records of parents, and tuition payments.
McMahon, Clara R. P. “A Note on the Free School Idea in Colonial Maryland.” Maryland Historical Magazine 54 (1959): 149–52.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Founding of Harvard College. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935. Excellent description of the records kept by a university. Alumni registers for many original universities in the United States have been published and will be found in major research libraries.
“Records of Pennsylvania School Children, 1802–1809.” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 50 (1962): 78. Tax lists included school-age children with their ages.
Sloane, Eric. The Little Red Schoolhouse: A Sketchbook of Early American Education. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972.
Staubo, Merete. History of the Council of School Superintendents, Cities and Villages of the State of New York, 1883–1967. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1971.
Szucs, Loretto Dennis. “Education Records.” Ancestry Magazine 13, no. 1 (January–February 1995): 20.
Typical Guides to Manuscript Collections
Dructor, Robert M. A Guide to Genealogical Sources at the Pennsylvania State Archives. 2nd ed. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1998.
Guide to the Manuscript Collections of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1949.
Lovett, Robert W., and Eleanor C. Bishop, comps. List of Business Manuscripts in Baker Library. Boston: the library, 1969.
The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, annual since 1962.
Pflugll, Warner. A Guide to the Archives of Labor History and Urban Affairs. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1974.
Sample Corporate Histories
Crittenden, Christopher, William S. Powell, and Robert H. Woody, eds. 100 Years 100 Men, 1871–1971: A History of the Edwards & Broughton Company in Raleigh, North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: Edwards and Broughton, n.d.
Ewing, John S., and Nancy P. Norton. Broadloom and Businessmen: A History of the Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Company, 1825–1953. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Business History, 1955.
Gibb, George S. The Whitesmiths of Taunton: A History of Reed and Barton, 1824–1943. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Business History, 1943.
Hower, Ralph M. History of Macy’s of New York, 1858–1939: Chapters in the History of a Department Store. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Business History, 1943.
———. The History of an Advertising Agency: N. W. Ayer & Son at Work, 1869–1949. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Business History, 1949.
Shinn, Charles Howard. The Story of the Mine: As Illustrated by the Great Comstock Lode of Nevada. New York: D. Appleton, 1897.
White, Gerald T. A History of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Business History, 1955.
Selected Vocational Collective Biographies
Barrett, Walter. The Old Merchants of New York. 5 vols. New York: Carleton, 1863–70.
Bell, Charles H. The Bench and Bar of New Hampshire. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1894.
The Bench and Bar of Chicago: Biographical Sketches. Chicago: American Biographical Publishing Co., n.d.
Bjerkoe, Ethel Hall. The Cabinetmakers of America. Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, 1957.
Bowers, William S. Gunsmiths of Pen-Mar-Va, 1790–1840. Mercersburg, Pa.: Irwinton Publishers, 1979.
Burton, E. Milby. South Carolina Silversmiths, 1690–1860. Rutland, Vt.: Tuttle Co., 1968.
Carlisle, Lilian Baker. Vermont Clock and Watchmakers, Silversmiths, and Jewelers, 1778–1878. Burlington, Vt.: Stinehour Press, 1970.
Currier, Ernest M. Marks of Early American Silversmiths. Watkins Glen, N.Y.: American Life Foundation, 1970.
Cutten, George Barton. The Silversmiths of North Carolina From 1696 to 1860. 2nd rev. ed. Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 1984.
———. The Silversmiths of Virginia from 1694 to 1850. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1952.
De Voe, Shirley Spaulding. The Tinsmiths of Connecticut. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press for the Connecticut Historical Society, 1968.
Drepperd, Carl William. American Clocks & Clockmakers. Boston: C. T. Brandord Co., 1958.
Drost, William E. Clocks and Watches of New Jersey. Elizabeth, N.J.: Engineering Publishers, 1966.
Eckhardt, George H. Pennsylvania Clocks and Clockmakers. New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1955.
Elliott, Mary Quigley. Biographical Sketches of Knox County Writers. Mount Vernon, Ohio: 1937.
Ensko, Stephen Guernsey, and Stephen Guernsey Cook Ensko. American Silversmiths and Their Marks IV. Rev. ed. Boston: David R. Godine, 1990.
Foote, Henry Stuart. The Bench and Bar of the South and Southwest. St. Louis: Soule, Thomas and Wentworth, 1876.
French, Hollis. A List of Early American Silversmiths and Their Marks. 1917. Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1967.
Fried, Frederick. Artists in Wood: American Carvers of Cigar-store Indians, Show Figures, and Circus Wagons. New York: C. N. Potter, 1970.
Gardner, Albert Ten Eyck. Yankee Stonecutters: The First American School of Sculpture, 1800–1850. New York: Columbia University Press for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1945.
Gerstell, Vivian S. The Silversmiths of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1730–1850. Lancaster, Pa.: Lancaster County Historical Society, 1972.
Gill, Harold B., Jr. The Gunsmith in Colonial Virginia. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1974.
Heisey, John W. A Checklist of American Coverlet Weavers. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1978.
Hiatt, Noble W. The Silversmiths of Kentucky: Together with Some Watchmakers and Jewelers, 1785–1850. Louisville, Ky.: Standard Print Co., 1954.
Hutslar, Donald A. Gunsmiths of Ohio 18th and 19th Centuries. Longrifle Series. York, Pa.: George Shumway, 1973.
Kovel, Ralph M. A Directory of American Silver, Pewter, and Silver Plate. New York: Crown Publishers, 1961.
Langdon, John Emerson. Canadian Silversmiths, 1700–1900. Toronto: Stinehour Press, 1966.
Lanier, Henry Wysham. A Century of Banking in New York, 1822–1922. New York: Gilliss Press, 1922.
Laughlin, Ledlie Irwin. Pewter in America: Its Makers and Their Marks. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1940.
Levitt, James H. For Want of Trade: Shipping and the New Jersey Ports, 1680–1783. Newark: New Jersey Historical Society, 1981.
Lewis, George E. The Bench and Bar of Colorado. Denver: Bench and Bar Publishing Co., 1917.
Lynch, James Daniel. The Bench and Bar of Texas. St. Louis: Nixon-Jones Printing Co., 1885.
Martin, John Hill. Martins Bench and Bar of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Rees Welsh and Co., 1883.
Miller, Stephen Francis. The Bench and Bar of Georgia. 2 vols. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1858.
Palmer, John McAuley. The Bench and Bar of Illinois. 2 vols. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1899.
Parsons, Charles Sumner. New Hampshire Clocks & Clockmakers. Exeter, N.H.: Adams Brown Co., 1976.
Proctor, Lucien Brock. The Bench and Bar of New York. New York: Diossy, 1870.
Reed, George Irving. The Bench and Bar of Michigan. Chicago: Century Publishing and Engraving, 1897.
———. The Bench and Bar of Ohio. 2 vols. Chicago: Century Publishing and Engraving, 1897.
Reed, Parker McCobb. The Bench and Bar of Wisconsin. Milwaukee: the compiler, 1882.
Rice, Alvin H. The Shenandoah Pottery. Berryville, Va.: Virginia Book Co., 1974.
Roberts, Kenneth D. Planemakers and Other Edge Tool Enterprises in New York State in the Nineteenth Century. Cooperstown, N.Y.: New York State Historical Association, 1970.
Sams, Conway Whittle. The Bench and Bar of Maryland. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1901.
Shelton, Lawrence P. California Gunsmiths, 1846–1900. Fair Oaks, Calif.: Far Far West Publishers, 1977.
Smart, Charles E. The Makers of Surveying Instruments in America Since 1700. 2 vols. Troy, N.Y.: Regal Art Press, 1962–67.
Severance, Frank Haywood. The Holland Land Company and Canal Construction in Western New York. Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo Historical Society, 1910.
The Stoystown and Greensburgh Turnpike Road Company: Minutes, 1815–1826. Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services, 1976.
Wendell, Emory. Wendell’s History of Banking and Banks and Bankers of Michigan. Detroit: Winn and Hammond, n.d.
- Researching Business, Institution, and Organization Records
- List of Useful Business, Institution, and Organization Records