Census Records for Texas
This entry was originally written by Wendy Bebout Elliott, Ph.D. FUGA in Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources.
• Indexed—1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890 (partial), 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930
• Soundex—1880, 1900, 1910, 1920
Industry and Agriculture Schedules
• 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880
• 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880
• 1850, 1860
Union Veterans Schedules
The Texas State Library holds microfilm editions of all extant Texas federal censuses. The 1830 territorial census of Miller County, Arkansas, enumerates an area that is in today’s Texas boundaries. Although the 1850, 1860, and part of the 1870 mortality schedules have been published, original mortality schedules are at the Texas State Library and on microfilm. In addition to AISI indexes and online access to census records (see page 3), other published indexes of federal population schedules are available.
Vera Carpenter’s The State of Texas Federal Population Schedules, Seventh Census of the United States, 1850. 5 vols. (Huntsville, Ark.: Century Enterprises, 1969) is available in a number of large research facilities.
The remaining 1890 population schedules that exist for Texas include Ellis County (Justice Precinct 6, Mountain Peak, and Ovilla Precinct); Hood County (Precinct 5); Rusk County (No. 6 and Justice Precinct No. 7); Trinity County (town of Trinity and Justice Precinct 2); and Kaufman County (Kaufman). Although Greer County in present-day Oklahoma functioned as part of Texas between 1886 and 1896, the 1890 census for this county was enumerated under Oklahoma Territory.
Colonial and Republic
Various censuses were enumerated under Spanish and Mexican governments at times, but these seldom covered all settlements in Texas for any given year. Mission rolls, reports, and statistical reviews were recorded between 1783 and 1796. Some rancho censuses are extant for the years between 1797 and 1826. An 1828 Padron lists home, age, occupation, marital status, and religion, as well as family members. This is available at the Texas State Library as part of the records group contained in the Nacogdoches Archives section for 1753 to 1836 on microfilm. Translated mission censuses have been microfilmed and can be reviewed at the Institute of Texas Cultures, University of Texas, San Antonio.
No censuses were taken under the Republic of Texas (1836–45), although tax records provide a substitute census for 1840. See printed sources that follow and Tax Records (below) for examples of such tax records.
Some published census records for this period include:
Connor, Seymour V. Kentucky Colonization in Texas. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983. Includes separate lists of colonists noting name, age, occupation, birthplace, number of children, removal, and county and date of settlement. The first list enumerates those who received land. Others list “colonists who moved away before receiving land,” “persons issued county court certificates…probable colonists,” “persons issued county court certificates…doubtful colonists,” and “persons issued county court certificates who did not receive land.” Most dates are between 1844 and 1848.
Mullins, Marion Day. The First Census of Texas, 1829–1836: To Which Are Added Texas Citizenship Lists, 1821–1845 and Other Early Records of the Republic of Texas. Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1962. Special publication number 22. Lists Texans from lists of citizens and other early records.
Osburn, Mary McMillian, ed. The Atascosito Census of 1826. 1963. Reprint from Texana 1 (Fall 1963): 299-321. N.p., n.d. A publication for the Liberty County Historical Survey Committee. Residents of Texas, 1702–1836. 3 vols. San Antonio: University of Texas, Institute of Texas Cultures, 1984.
White, Gifford Elmore, comp. 1830 Citizens of Texas. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 1983. Taken from records in the U.S. General Land Office (GLO).
——. The 1840 Census of the Republic of Texas. Foreword by James M. Day. Austin, Tex.: Pemberton Press, 1966.
——. 1840 Citizens of Texas. 3 vols. Nacogdoches, Tex.: Ericson Books, 1983–1988.
No state censuses were taken for Texas although some counties enumerated children ages six to sixteen years in schools between 1854 and 1855. These usually contain names of parents or guardians and students’ names. The archives division of the Texas State Library houses the originals, although name indexes are kept in its Search Room. County lists for those counties beginning with letters “A” through “D” are missing. Mail or phone requests may be made for index entries. Microfilm copies of some are in the FHL. See also Gifford E. White, Texas Scholastics, 1854–55: Copied from the Originals in the Archives, Texas State Library (Nacogdoches, Tex.: Ericson Press, 1981).