Census Records for Montana
This entry was originally written by Dwight Radford for Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources.
• Indexed—1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930
• Soundex—1880, 1900, 1920
Industrial and Agricultural Schedules
• 1870, 1880
• 1870, 1880
Union Veterans Schedules
• 1890 (indexed)
In 1860 the area of Montana that lies east of the Continental Divide was part of Nebraska Territory. Persons residing in this area were enumerated in the unorganized part of Nebraska Territory. The only exceptions to this were two trading posts, Fort Alexander and Fort Union, which were enumerated with unorganized Dakota. The area of Montana west of the Continental Divide was enumerated as the Bitterroot Valley and the Ponderay Mountains in Spokane County, Washington Territory.
A “census” of miners taken during 1862 to 1863 can be found in “List of Early Settlers: A List of All Persons (Except Indians) Who Were in What Is Now Montana During the Winter of 1862–63, Which Was the First Winter After the Gold Mines of This Region Had Become Noised Abroad,” Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, vol. 1. (Helena, Mont.: Rocky Mountain Publishing Co., 1876). Yellowstone National Park was created in 1872, and all residents of the area were enumerated in the Wyoming census for 1880.