Census Records for Maryland
• Indexed—1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930
• Soundex –1880, 1900, 1920
Ancestry.com has digitized images of the entire U.S. Federal Census Schedules 1790-1930 and created searchable indexes for the images. This collection can be accessed at U.S. Federal Census Collection.
Industry and Agriculture Schedules
• 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880
• 1850, 1860 (1850 and 1860 indexed), 1870, 1880 (1870 and 1880 indexed for Eastern Shore)
• 1850, 1860 (both indexed)
Union Veterans Schedules
• 1890 (indexed)
Microfilm of the federal censuses and corresponding book and microfilm indexes as well as indexed mortality schedules are at the Maryland State Archives, the Maryland State Law Library, and elsewhere (see pages 3 and 17). An index to the 1860 slave schedules was compiled by Ralph Clayton in the Maryland Genealogical Society Bulletin 25 (1984): 92-112. Missing schedules include 1790 for Allegany, Calvert, Somerset, and part of Dorchester counties (destroyed); 1800 for Baltimore County (never taken); and 1830 for Montgomery, Prince George’s, Queen Anne’s, Saint Mary’s, and Somerset counties.
Non-population census schedules are at the state archives, which also has the original 1880 population schedules.
A 1776 census was taken to determine population and is indexed at the Maryland State Archives, but it is not available for all counties. A 1778 “census” is a list of males over eighteen who in some counties signed the Oath of Fidelity, and in others, those who did not. Of the few extant lists, those for nine counties were published by Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh in Maryland Records: Colonial, Revolutionary, County and Church From Original Sources, 2 vols. (1915–28; reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1985). See also Bettie Stirling Carothers’ compilations, 1776 Census of Maryland, and 1778 Census of Maryland (Lutherville, Md.: n.p., 1972). Both versions of the 1778 census published by Brumbaugh and Carothers contain transcription errors. Brumbaugh also published some of the 1778 Oaths of Fidelity (also indexed at the Maryland State Archives); others were compiled and published in two volumes by Bettie Stirling Carothers (Lutherville, Md.: the author, 1975–78). A police census taken in Baltimore in 1868 is in the Baltimore City Archives.
Among census substitutes are Maryland Rent Rolls: Baltimore and Anne Arundel Counties, 1700–1707, 1705–1724, from the Maryland Historical Magazine (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1976). See Maryland Tax Records for other lists.