1900 U.S. Census

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The United States Federal Census

This article is part of a series.
Overview of the U.S. Census
Finding and Reading U.S. Census Records
1790 U.S. Census
1800 U.S. Census
1810 U.S. Census
1820 U.S. Census
1830 U.S. Census
1840 U.S. Census
1850 U.S. Census
1860 U.S. Census
1870 U.S. Census
1880 U.S. Census
1890 U.S. Census
1900 U.S. Census
1910 U.S. Census
1920 U.S. Census
1930 U.S. Census
1940 U.S. Census
Census Indexes and Finding Aids
Using the Soundex with Census Records
Non-Population Schedules and Special Censuses
State and Local Censuses
Census Substitutes
African American Census Schedules
Reconstructed 1790 Census Schedules
Censuses of Native Americans
List of Useful Census References
Topics

This article originally appeared in "Census Records" by Loretto Dennis Szucs and Matthew Wright in The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy

The 1900 census began on 1 June 1900. The enumeration was to be completed within thirty days, or within two weeks for communities with populations of more than 10,000. The official census population count was 76,212,168. This total includes the Continental U.S. plus the Alaska and Hawaii territories.

Contents

Questions Asked in the 1900 Census

Standard sections ranging from Nativity to Trade and Education were included in the 1900 Federal Census form. Ownership of home was no longer supplemental. Note column 19; person had to be only ten years of age to be employed. (Source: U.S. Census Bureau.)

The 1900 population schedules provide the number of each dwelling house and family, in order of visitation; the name, address, relationship to the head of the household of each person in the household; his or her color or race, sex, month and year of birth, age at last birthday, marital status, the number of years married, the total number of children born of the mother, the number of those children living, and places of birth for each individual and the parents of each individual. If the individual was foreign born, the year of immigration and the number of years he or she was in the United States at the time of the census, and his or her citizenship status, if over twenty-one. The schedule also includes each individual’s occupation; the number of months he or she was unemployed during the last year; whether the person attended school within the year and if so, the number of months in school; whether the person could read, write, and speak English; whether the home was owned or rented; whether the home was on a farm; and whether the home was mortgaged.

Other Significant Facts about the 1900 Census

1900 census schedule from Kansas City, Wyandotte County, Kansas, that lists a young Amelia Earhart.

The 1900 census is the only available census that provides columns for including the exact month and year of birth of every person enumerated. Previous censuses, and even the 1910, 1920, and 1930 censuses, include only ages. The 1900 census was also the first census to include space to record the number of years couples were married, how long an immigrant had been in the country and whether he or she was naturalized. It was also one of the first censuses to ask whether a home or farm was owned or rented, and whether the owned property was free of mortgage, the number of children born to the mother, and how many were still living. (These same questions were asked on the 1890 census.)

Research Tips for the 1900 Census

Because the Soundex index to the 1900 census is regarded as one of the most inclusive and accurate of the federally created indexes, it is recommended as a good starting point for beginning researchers. Most beginning researchers are able to find some knowledge of family names and residences that will serve as a starting point for searching the 1900 Soundex index. (See Census Indexes and Finding Aids.) The 1900 census is an excellent tool for determining dates and places to search for marriage records, birth records of children, deaths of children, and the marriages of children not listed. It is also a means of verifying family traditions, identifying unknown family members, and linking what is known to other sources, such as earlier censuses, naturalization records (especially declarations of intent to become citizens), school attendance rolls, property holdings, and employment and occupational records. These records can also help to trace and document ethnic origins, and identify overseas and shipboard military service.

Note that some Indian schedules are kept at the end of their corresponding state schedules, instead of the county.

For additional information on the 1900 census, see 1900 Federal Population Census: A Catalog of Microfilm Copies of the Schedules at the National Archives.14 For boundary changes and identification of missing census schedules, see Thorndale’s and Dollarhide’s Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790–1920.

Comparison of Census Information, 1790-1940

Personal Info on Census 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940
Name of family head only x x x x x x
Headcount by age, gender, ... x x x x x x
Standard census form x x x x x x x x x x x x
Names of all individuals x x x x x x x x
Age x x x x x x x x
Sex x x x x x x x x
Color x x x x x x x x
Profession or occupation x x x x x x x x
Place of birth x x x x x x x x
Attended school that year x x x x x x x x
Highest grade completed x
Married that year x x x x x
Read or write x x x x x x x x
Deaf, blind, insane, idiotic, ... x x x x x
Real estate value x x x x
Personal estate value x x
Separate slave schedule x x
Father of foreign birth x
Mother of foreign birth x
Month of birth x
Month of birth that year x x
Male citizen over 21 years x
Male over 21 denied vote x
Visitation number of dwelling x x x x x x x x x
Visitation number of family x x x x x x x x x
Street name in city x x x x x x
House number in city x x x x x x
Relationship to family head x x x x x x
Marital status x x x x x x
Month of marriage that year x
No. of months unemployed x x
Father's birthplace x x x x x sup
Mother's birthplace x x x x x sup
Sickness on census day x
Year of birth x
No. of years present marriage x x
Mother how many children x x sup
Number of children living x x
Year of immigration to US x x x x
No. of years in US x
Naturalization status x x x x
Months attended school x

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