1830 U.S. Census
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The 1830 census began on 1 June 1830. The enumeration was to be completed within six months but was extended to allow completion within twelve months. The official census population count was 12,860,702.
Questions Asked in the 1830 Census
The 1830 census form called for the name of the head of household; the number of free white males and females in age categories 0 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 20 to 30, 30 to 40, 40 to 50, 50 to 60, 60 to 70, 70 to 80, 80 to 90, 90 to 100, over 100; the number of slaves and free “colored” persons in age categories; there were also categories for deaf, dumb, and blind persons, and aliens; the town or district; and the county of residence.
Other Significant Facts about the 1830 Census
The 1830 census was the first for which the government provided uniform, printed forms to enumerators for the purpose of recording answers to census questions.
Research Tips for the 1830 Census
The 1830 census records are useful for identifying localities to search for other types of records for a named individual. The 1830 census will, in most cases, help distinguish the target family from others of the same name; help to determine family size; locate possible relatives with the same name; identify immediate neighbors who may be related; identify slaveholders; and spot spelling variations of surnames. Free men “of color” are listed as heads of household by name. Slaves appear in age groupings by name of owner. By combining those age groupings with probate inventories and tax list data, it is sometimes possible to determine names of other family members and the birth order of those individuals.
The 1830 census went a step further in breaking down ages, thus allowing more precise knowledge of the household configuration. With the age categories expanded to include those one hundred years and older, it is possible to have a better idea of life spans during that time period. The addition of information regarding those who were deaf, dumb, and blind is an indication that there may be related guardianship or institutional records. The presence of aliens in a household suggests the possibility that those individuals may eventually have been naturalized in a nearby court.
For a state-by-state listing of census schedules, see The 1790–1890 Federal Population Censuses: Catalog of National Archives Microfilm. For boundary changes and identification of missing census schedules, see Thorndale’s and Dollarhide’s Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790–1920.
Comparison of Census Information, 1790-1940
|Personal Info on Census||1790||1800||1810||1820||1830||1840||1850||1860||1870||1880||1900||1910||1920||1930||1940|
|Name of family head only||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Headcount by age, gender, ...||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Standard census form||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Names of all individuals||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Profession or occupation||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Place of birth||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Attended school that year||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Highest grade completed||✔|
|Married that year||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Read or write||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Deaf, blind, insane, idiotic, ...||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Real estate value||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Personal estate value||✔||✔|
|Separate slave schedule||✔||✔|
|Father of foreign birth||✔|
|Mother of foreign birth||✔|
|Month of birth||✔|
|Month of birth that year||✔||✔|
|Male citizen over 21 years||✔|
|Male over 21 denied vote||✔|
|Visitation number of dwelling||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Visitation number of family||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Street name in city||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|House number in city||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Relationship to family head||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Month of marriage that year||✔|
|No. of months unemployed||✔||✔|
|Sickness on census day||✔|
|Year of birth||✔|
|No. of years present marriage||✔||✔|
|Mother how many children||✔||✔||sup|
|Number of children living||✔||✔|
|Year of immigration to US||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|No. of years in US||✔|
|Months attended school||✔|