1800 U.S. Census
The 1800 census began on 4 August 1800. The count was to be completed within nine months. The official census population count was 5,308,483.
Questions Asked in the 1800 Census
The census asked the name of the family head; the number of free white males and females in age categories 0 to 10, 10 to 16, 16 to 26, 26 to 45, 45 and older; the number of other free persons except Indians not taxed; the number of slaves; and the town or district and county of residence.
Other Significant Facts about the 1800 Census
Most 1800 census entries are arranged in the order of visitation, but some have been rearranged to appear in alphabetical order by initial letter of the surname.
Research Tips for the 1800 Census
The 1800 census records are useful for identifying localities to search for other types of records for a named individual. The 1800 census will, in most cases, help distinguish the target family from others of the same name; help to determine family size; locate possible relatives with the same name; identify immediate neighbors who may be related; identify slaveholders; and spot spelling variations of surnames. Free men “of color” are listed as heads of household by name. Slaves appear in age groupings by name of owner. By combining those age groupings with probate inventories and tax list data, it is sometimes possible to determine names and birth order of other family members.
For a state-by-state listing of census schedules, see The 1790–1890 Federal Population Censuses: Catalog of National Archives Microfilm. For boundary changes and identification of missing census schedules, see Thorndale’s and Dollarhide’s Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790–1920.